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1 And the LORD said unto Moses, Hew thee two tables of stone like unto the first: and I will write upon these tables the words that were in the first tables, which thou brakest. 2 And be ready in the morning, and come up in the morning unto mount Sinai, and present thyself there to me in the top of the mount. 3 And no man shall come up with thee, neither let any man be seen throughout all the mount; neither let the flocks nor herds feed before that mount. 4 And he hewed two tables of stone like unto the first; and Moses rose up early in the morning, and went up unto mount Sinai, as the LORD had commanded him, and took in his hand the two tables of stone. 5 And the LORD descended in the cloud, and stood with him there, and proclaimed the name of the LORD. 6 And the LORD passed by before him, and proclaimed, The LORD, The LORD God, merciful and gracious, longsuffering, and abundant in goodness and truth, 7 Keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, and that will by no means clear the guilty; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the children's children, unto the third and to the fourth generation. 8 And Moses made haste, and bowed his head toward the earth, and worshipped. 9 And he said, If now I have found grace in thy sight, O LORD, let my LORD, I pray thee, go among us; for it is a stiffnecked people; and pardon our iniquity and our sin, and take us for thine inheritance. 10 And he said, Behold, I make a covenant: before all thy people I will do marvels, such as have not been done in all the earth, nor in any nation: and all the people among which thou art shall see the work of the LORD: for it is a terrible thing that I will do with thee. 11 Observe thou that which I command thee this day: behold, I drive out before thee the Amorite, and the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite. 12 Take heed to thyself, lest thou make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land whither thou goest, lest it be for a snare in the midst of thee: 13 But ye shall destroy their altars, break their images, and cut down their groves: 14 For thou shalt worship no other god: for the LORD, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God: 15 Lest thou make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land, and they go a whoring after their gods, and do sacrifice unto their gods, and one call thee, and thou eat of his sacrifice; 16 And thou take of their daughters unto thy sons, and their daughters go a whoring after their gods, and make thy sons go a whoring after their gods. 17 Thou shalt make thee no molten gods. 18 The feast of unleavened bread shalt thou keep. Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, as I commanded thee, in the time of the month Abib: for in the month Abib thou camest out from Egypt. 19 All that openeth the matrix is mine; and every firstling among thy cattle, whether ox or sheep, that is male. 20 But the firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb: and if thou redeem him not, then shalt thou break his neck. All the firstborn of thy sons thou shalt redeem. And none shall appear before me empty. 21 Six days thou shalt work, but on the seventh day thou shalt rest: in earing time and in harvest thou shalt rest. 22 And thou shalt observe the feast of weeks, of the firstfruits of wheat harvest, and the feast of ingathering at the year's end. 23 Thrice in the year shall all your menchildren appear before the LORD God, the God of Israel. 24 For I will cast out the nations before thee, and enlarge thy borders: neither shall any man desire thy land, when thou shalt go up to appear before the LORD thy God thrice in the year. 25 Thou shalt not offer the blood of my sacrifice with leaven; neither shall the sacrifice of the feast of the passover be left unto the morning. 26 The first of the firstfruits of thy land thou shalt bring unto the house of the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in his mother's milk. 27 And the LORD said unto Moses, Write thou these words: for after the tenor of these words I have made a covenant with thee and with Israel. 28 And he was there with the LORD forty days and forty nights; he did neither eat bread, nor drink water. And he wrote upon the tables the words of the covenant, the ten commandments. 29 And it came to pass, when Moses came down from mount Sinai with the two tables of testimony in Moses' hand, when he came down from the mount, that Moses wist not that the skin of his face shone while he talked with him. 30 And when Aaron and all the children of Israel saw Moses, behold, the skin of his face shone; and they were afraid to come nigh him. 31 And Moses called unto them; and Aaron and all the rulers of the congregation returned unto him: and Moses talked with them. 32 And afterward all the children of Israel came nigh: and he gave them in commandment all that the LORD had spoken with him in mount Sinai. 33 And till Moses had done speaking with them, he put a vail on his face. 34 But when Moses went in before the LORD to speak with him, he took the vail off, until he came out. And he came out, and spake unto the children of Israel that which he was commanded. 35 And the children of Israel saw the face of Moses, that the skin of Moses' face shone: and Moses put the vail upon his face again, until he went in to speak with him.

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1 Raymond Huerta = "The first set of tablets had been given by God to Moses in Exodus 31:18 (https://www.deily.org/bible/kjv/exodus/31). "
2 Yaakov ben Chaim Tzvi = "The first set of commandments created by God were broken by Moses. The Torah states "Hew two tablets of stone, like the first" to show that the second set of tablets were just as binding, if not even more so than the original set. It's one thing for God to bestow a gift to humanity but quite another for humanity to accept it. God can only offer his goodness, he can't force us to take it. The fact that Moses created the second set was a representation of Israel's acceptance of God's gift and their willingness to follow the law. This is why the laws of the second set of tablets are everlasting as they represent the divine flow from "below to above" which is man's desire to connect with God, vs. the divine flow from "above to below" which is God reaching to mankind. Our desire to connect with god is always more preferable than his desire to connect with us."
3 Yaakov ben Chaim Tzvi = "The Hebrew word "Sinai" is closely related to the word "Sinah" which means hatred. The Jewish sages explained that God's choosing Israel to receive the commandments on Mount Sinai created a lasting hatred for Israel among the nations of the world which exists until today."
4 Sarah R = "Parallel Scriptures:Numbers 14:18 "The LORD is slow to anger, abounding in love and forgiving sin and rebellion. Yet he does not leave the guilty unpunished; he punishes the children for the sin of the parents to the third and fourth generation."Psalms 103:8 "The LORD is merciful and gracious, slow to anger, and plenteous in mercy."Nehemiah 9:17 "But you are a forgiving God, gracious and compassionate, slow to anger and abounding in love. "Joel 2:13 "Return to the LORD your God, for he is gracious and compassionate, slow to anger and abounding in love, and he relents from sending calamity."Nahum 1:3 "The LORD is slow to anger but great in power; the LORD will not leave the guilty unpunished. ""
5 Yaakov ben Chaim Tzvi = "Each year on Yom Kippur, Jews recite the 13 attributes of mercy which are contained in this sacred verse. Lord, Lord: This is God's Attribute of Compassion. [It is repeated,] once for before the person sins, and once for after he sins and repents.God: Heb. אֵל. This too is an attribute of compassion [for God], and so he [the Psalmist] says: “My God, my God, why have You forsaken me?” (Ps. 22:2). One cannot say to the Divine attribute of justice, “Why have You forsaken me?”slow to anger: He puts off His anger and does not hasten to exact retribution, [hoping that] perhaps he [the sinner] will repent.and abundant in loving-kindness: for those who need loving-kindness because they lack sufficient merits.and truth: to pay a good reward to those who do His will.preserving loving-kindness: that a person does before Him.for thousands: For two thousand generations.[iniquity and rebellion]: Iniquities (עִוֹנוֹת) are intentional sins. פְּשָׁעִים are sins committed out of rebellion, which a person commits [in order] to anger [God].yet He does not completely clear [of sin]: Heb. וְנַקֵּה לֹא יְנַקֶּה. According to its simple interpretation, it means that He clears those who repent, but does not clear those who do not repentHe visits the iniquity of parents on the children: when they hold onto the deeds of their parents in their hands [i.e., emulate their ways], for He already explained this in another verse, [that it means only] “of those who hate Me” (Exod. 20:5)and fourth generations: Heb. וְעַל רִבֵּעִים, the fourth generation. Thus, the [i.e., God’s] attribute of goodness exceeds the attribute of retribution by a ratio of one to five hundred. Concerning the attribute of goodness, He says: “preserving loving-kindness for thousands.”"
6 Raymond Huerta = "These verses invoke the metaphor of whoring to represent idolatry strongly suggests the sexual sense of "jealous." God, who chose Israel, could represent Himself as Israel's husband and lover (a metaphor that is extended by Hosea and Jeremiah), and when the Israelites betray Him by worshipping other gods, they go "whoring," are unfaithful to God. Alter, Robert. "Exodus Chapter 34." The Five Books of Moses: A Translation with Commentary. New York: W.W. Norton, 2004. Print."
7 Raymond Huerta = "The famous verse Exodus 23:19 (https://www.deily.org/bible/kjv/exodus/23) "You shall not boil a kid in its mother's milk," is repeated here. This prohibition would become the basis in rabbinic dietary regulations for the absolute separation of meat and dairy foods. See:http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/5191-dietary-laws"
8 Sarah R = "The flood during the time of Noah was for forty days and forty nights (Genesis 7). Jesus fasted before His temptation for forty days and forty nights (Matthew 4)."
9 Sarah R = "Scripture Link: 2 Corinthians 3:12-1612 Therefore, since we have such a hope, we are very bold. 13 We are not like Moses, who would put a veil over his face to prevent the Israelites from seeing the end of what was passing away. 14 But their minds were made dull,for to this day the same veil remains when the old covenant is read. It has not been removed, because only in Christ is it taken away. 15 Even to this day when Moses is read, a veil covers their hearts. 16 But whenever anyone turns to the Lord, the veil is taken away."