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1 Now these are the nations which the LORD left, to prove Israel by them, even as many of Israel as had not known all the wars of Canaan; 2 Only that the generations of the children of Israel might know, to teach them war, at the least such as before knew nothing thereof; 3 Namely, five lords of the Philistines, and all the Canaanites, and the Sidonians, and the Hivites that dwelt in mount Lebanon, from mount Baalhermon unto the entering in of Hamath. 4 And they were to prove Israel by them, to know whether they would hearken unto the commandments of the LORD, which he commanded their fathers by the hand of Moses. 5 And the children of Israel dwelt among the Canaanites, Hittites, and Amorites, and Perizzites, and Hivites, and Jebusites: 6 And they took their daughters to be their wives, and gave their daughters to their sons, and served their gods. 7 And the children of Israel did evil in the sight of the LORD, and forgat the LORD their God, and served Baalim and the groves. 8 Therefore the anger of the LORD was hot against Israel, and he sold them into the hand of Chushanrishathaim king of Mesopotamia: and the children of Israel served Chushanrishathaim eight years. 9 And when the children of Israel cried unto the LORD, the LORD raised up a deliverer to the children of Israel, who delivered them, even Othniel the son of Kenaz, Caleb's younger brother. 10 And the Spirit of the LORD came upon him, and he judged Israel, and went out to war: and the LORD delivered Chushanrishathaim king of Mesopotamia into his hand; and his hand prevailed against Chushanrishathaim. 11 And the land had rest forty years. And Othniel the son of Kenaz died. 12 And the children of Israel did evil again in the sight of the LORD: and the LORD strengthened Eglon the king of Moab against Israel, because they had done evil in the sight of the LORD. 13 And he gathered unto him the children of Ammon and Amalek, and went and smote Israel, and possessed the city of palm trees. 14 So the children of Israel served Eglon the king of Moab eighteen years. 15 But when the children of Israel cried unto the LORD, the LORD raised them up a deliverer, Ehud the son of Gera, a Benjamite, a man lefthanded: and by him the children of Israel sent a present unto Eglon the king of Moab. 16 But Ehud made him a dagger which had two edges, of a cubit length; and he did gird it under his raiment upon his right thigh. 17 And he brought the present unto Eglon king of Moab: and Eglon was a very fat man. 18 And when he had made an end to offer the present, he sent away the people that bare the present. 19 But he himself turned again from the quarries that were by Gilgal, and said, I have a secret errand unto thee, O king: who said, Keep silence. And all that stood by him went out from him. 20 And Ehud came unto him; and he was sitting in a summer parlour, which he had for himself alone. And Ehud said, I have a message from God unto thee. And he arose out of his seat. 21 And Ehud put forth his left hand, and took the dagger from his right thigh, and thrust it into his belly: 22 And the haft also went in after the blade; and the fat closed upon the blade, so that he could not draw the dagger out of his belly; and the dirt came out. 23 Then Ehud went forth through the porch, and shut the doors of the parlour upon him, and locked them. 24 When he was gone out, his servants came; and when they saw that, behold, the doors of the parlour were locked, they said, Surely he covereth his feet in his summer chamber. 25 And they tarried till they were ashamed: and, behold, he opened not the doors of the parlour; therefore they took a key, and opened them: and, behold, their lord was fallen down dead on the earth. 26 And Ehud escaped while they tarried, and passed beyond the quarries, and escaped unto Seirath. 27 And it came to pass, when he was come, that he blew a trumpet in the mountain of Ephraim, and the children of Israel went down with him from the mount, and he before them. 28 And he said unto them, Follow after me: for the LORD hath delivered your enemies the Moabites into your hand. And they went down after him, and took the fords of Jordan toward Moab, and suffered not a man to pass over. 29 And they slew of Moab at that time about ten thousand men, all lusty, and all men of valour; and there escaped not a man. 30 So Moab was subdued that day under the hand of Israel. And the land had rest fourscore years. 31 And after him was Shamgar the son of Anath, which slew of the Philistines six hundred men with an ox goad: and he also delivered Israel.

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1 Raymond Huerta = "Here an entirely different reason for the incompleteness of the conquest is introduced: Israel had to learn the skills of war in gradual stages through conflict with the Canaanites before it was prepared to conquer them.Alter, Robert. "Judges." Ancient Istael. New York: W.W. Norton. Print."
2 Raymond Huerta = "The writer reverts to the theological explanation for the incompleteness of the conquest pt forth in 2:21-23.Alter, Robert. "Judges." Ancient Istael. New York: W.W. Norton. Print."
3 Raymond Huerta = "There are two oddities in this name and title. Rishathaim, means "double-evil," sounds more like a symbolic epithet than an actual name.Alter, Robert. "Judges." Ancient Istael. New York: W.W. Norton. Print."
4 Raymond Huerta = "He has already figured in the narrative both in this book and in Joshua as the conqueror of Hebron.Alter, Robert. "Judges." Ancient Istael. New York: W.W. Norton. Print."
5 Raymond Huerta = "The tribe of Benjamin, as the subsequent narrative will affirm, was noted for its skill in battle. Alter, Robert. "Judges." Ancient Istael. New York: W.W. Norton. Print."
6 Raymond Huerta = "The literal sense of the Hebrew idiom is "a man impaired in his right hand." Ehud's left-handedness plays a crucial part in his assassination of Eglon.Alter, Robert. "Judges." Ancient Istael. New York: W.W. Norton. Print."
7 Raymond Huerta = "The name Eglon strongly suggests 'egel, "calf." In this satiric view of the enemy, he is gross fatted calf, ready for slaughter. Alter, Robert. "Judges." Ancient Istael. New York: W.W. Norton. Print."
8 Raymond Huerta = "The Hebrew hass is onomatopoeic, something like shsh! When Ehud tells Eglon that he has a secret to convey, these words elicit exactly the response intended by the assassin: the king doesn't want anyone else to hear, so he tells Ehud to keep quiet and orders everyone else out of the chamber.Alter, Robert. "Judges." Ancient Istael. New York: W.W. Norton. Print."
9 Raymond Huerta = "At first, Eglon might have thought that the secret word was some piece of military intelligence that this supposed collaborator was offering him. Alter, Robert. "Judges." Ancient Istael. New York: W.W. Norton. Print."
10 Raymond Huerta = "Eglon does not see this as the weapon-hand, Ehud gains a decisive moment as he whips out the sword before Eglon can make a move to evade it.Alter, Robert. "Judges." Ancient Istael. New York: W.W. Norton. Print."
11 Raymond Huerta = "The image of the weapon entirely encased in Eglon's corpulence is deliberately grotesque. Alter, Robert. "Judges." Ancient Istael. New York: W.W. Norton. Print."
12 Raymond Huerta = "The exact meaning of the Hebrew noun is uncertain, and our knowledge of the floor-plan of Moabite palaces remains imperfect in this regard. Alter, Robert. "Judges." Ancient Istael. New York: W.W. Norton. Print."
13 Raymond Huerta = "The use of the presentative hineh, "look," to make a shift to the characters' point of view is tactically effective here and in what follows: the courtiers are confronted by locked doors, and perplexed.Alter, Robert. "Judges." Ancient Istael. New York: W.W. Norton. Print."
14 Raymond Huerta = "These doors evidently can be locked or unlocked from either side.Alter, Robert. "Judges." Ancient Istael. New York: W.W. Norton. Print."
15 Raymond Huerta = "The management of narrative point of view is both eloquent and dramatic. They look and first make out "their master," take in the fact that he is sprawled on the floor, and then realize, at the very end of the syntactic chain, that he is dead.Alter, Robert. "Judges." Ancient Istael. New York: W.W. Norton. Print."
16 Raymond Huerta = "The courtiers' long wait while they supposed their king was relieving himself gives the assassin ample time to get away.Alter, Robert. "Judges." Ancient Istael. New York: W.W. Norton. Print."
17 Raymond Huerta = "It often happens in biblical narrative that two juxtaposed scenes are linked by the repetition of a term, in a different sense. The verb taqa' means "to stab" or "to thrust" and is used for Ehud's killing of Eglon. but it also means "to blast" (on a ram;s horn or trumpet), which is what he does now as a signal to rally fighters around him.Alter, Robert. "Judges." Ancient Istael. New York: W.W. Norton. Print."
18 Raymond Huerta = "Means "pursue me," in Hebrew. The idiom that always suggests hostile intent. The Septuagint reads "come down," and it is very likely that the extra consonant, generating a wrong meaning, was inadvertently introduced through scribal copying in the Masoretic text. Alter, Robert. "Judges." Ancient Istael. New York: W.W. Norton. Print."
19 Raymond Huerta = "80 years"
20 Raymond Huerta = "Anath is the Canaanite warrior-goddess. Some scholars think Shamgar may incorporate the name of the Hurrian sun-god. It's a puzzle that this judge should sport two eminently pagan names. It is possible that the folk-traditions on which the tales of the judges draw might actually reflect a fluid and syncretic situation in this early period in which on occasion a warrior of Canaanite lineage might have fought alongside some Israelite group.Alter, Robert. "Judges." Ancient Istael. New York: W.W. Norton. Print."