John Hyrcanus II, (died 30 bc, Jerusalem), high priest of Judaea from 76 to 40 bc, and, with his brother Aristobulus II, last of the Maccabean (Hasmonean) dynastic rulers. Under Hyrcanus’ vacillating leadership, Judaea (southern of the three traditional divisions of ancient Palestine, today mostly in Israel) fell into vassalage to Rome. When his father, Alexander Jannaeus, died in 76, Hyrcanus was appointed high priest, and on his mother’s death in 67 he assumed the rulership of Judaea. After a troubled reign of three months, his warlike brother Aristobulus drove him from power. Hyrcanus sought counsel from Antipater, satrap of Idumaea (a neighbouring province conquered by Hyrcanus’ grandfather John Hyrcanus I), who, seeing in the weak-willed Hyrcanus a possible tool for his own desire to control Judaea, induced him to wage war on Aristobulus. After a brutal struggle, the two brothers appealed to the great Roman general Pompey to be their arbiter. Pompey, also seeing in Hyrcanus a means of controlling Judaea, restored him to the high priesthood and some semblance of civil authority. During the rest of his life, Hyrcanus II was manipulated by those who wished to use him. He was deprived of his office by the military commander (proconsul) Aulus Gabinius; he was restored to it again by Julius Caesar as a reward for Hyrcanus’ support after Caesar had defeated Pompey at the Battle of Pharsalus; and then in 42 he was rendered powerless by Mark Antony’s appointment of Antipater’s two sons Herod and Phasael as tetrarchs (rulers) of Judaea. In 40 the invading Parthians, at the instigation of Hyrcanus’ ambitious nephew Antigonus, cut off Hyrcanus’ ears in order to disqualify him for the priesthood. In 36, after a forced sojourn in Babylon, Hyrcanus was allowed by Herod to return to Jerusalem; six years later, Herod, wishing to end any threat of popular support for Hyrcanus, had him executed.