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1. "And thy Lord do magnify, And thy garments do purify, And uncleanness do shun" (74:3-5). 2. "Surely Allâh loves those who turn to Him again and again, and He loves those who purify themselves" (2:222). 3. "Attend to your adornment at every time of prayer." (7:31). 4. "O you who believe! When you rise up to prayers, wash your faces and your hands as far as the elbows and wipe our hands and (wash) your feet to the ankles; and if you are under an obligation to perform a total ablution, have a bath; and if you are sick or on a journey, or one of you come from the privy, or you have had contact with women, and you cannot find water, betake yourselves to pure earth and wipe your faces and your hands therewith; Allâh does not desire to put on you any difficulty but He wishes to purify you and that He may complete His favour to you, so that you may be thankful" (5:6). Purification, though a necessary preliminary to prayer, is an independent subject and is dealt with as such in Hadîth collections. The first three quotations from the Holy Qur'ân given above require in general terms that the man who would turn to his Lord should be pure in body and garments. The Purification of the body is thus made a preliminary to prayer so that by external purification a man's attention may be directed to the purification of the soul which is aimed at in prayer. V. 4 gives the details of ablutions which are necessary before prayer. Purity of the body is thus required as a preliminary to the purity of mind, and the Muslim who is required to say prayers five times a day must needs keep himself and his clothes always clean. It is true that an intelligent man should know for himself what cleanliness is, but religion aims at giving directions to men in all stages of civilization, in early states as well as in the more developed ones. Moreover. the masses among all people stand in need of minute details, and hence while the Holy Qur'ân simply gives the general direction to keep oneself in a state of cleanliness, Hadîth gives the necessary details. As a matter of fact Islâm directs attention to many details of personal cleanliness of which even the more civilized people are ignorant. I have divided the chapter into five sections. The first deals with natural evacuations. Purification is called half the faith (h. 1) and the key to prayer (hh. 2. 3), It must not be forgotten that purity of the body is a prelude to the purity of the soul (h. 4). Full regard must be paid to personal cleanliness as well as public hygiene (hh. 5-13). Spitting in public places is forbidden (hh. 16, 17). The second section deals with tooth-brushing which occupies a very prominent place in the Muslim's cleanliness. It is spoken of as a means of purifying the mouth and seeking the pleasure of the Lord (h. 18), which is to show that God loves even bodily cleanliness. Great stress is laid upon its use (hh. 19, 20), and the minimum requirement is that the tooth-brush should be used after getting up from sleep (hh. 21, 22), A clean mouth is in fact the greatest help for the preservation of health. Its importance is further emphasized in h. 23, The third section gives the details of ablution (hh. 25 36) and shows when a fresh ablution becomes necessary (hh. 37-41). A prayer directing attention to purity of the spirit must be offered when the ablution has been performed (h. 43). The fourth section deals with total ablution or bath, which is made compulsory once a week (hh. 44-46). Particular occasions on which bath must be taken are mentioned in hh. 47-50, A person under an obligation to have a bath on account of janâbah and a menstruating woman are not impure (hh. 51, 52). Some details are given in hh. 53, 54, and taking a bath naked in an open place is strictly forbidden (1.1. 55). The fifth section deals with tayammum or wiping the face and hands with pure dust when water is not available for ablution or bath, though it may be available for drinking or domestic purposes, or when the use of water is likely to be harmful (hh. 56-58). This act is as it were a reminder that purification before prayer is an essential thing. 1 'Abû Mâlik said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, "Purification is half the faith."[1] (M-Msh. 3.) [1. A pure mind in a pure body is the watchword of Islâm. Here cleanliness is not next to godliness but it is half of godliness or faith.] 2 Jâbir said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: "The key to paradise is prayer and the key to prayer is purification." (Ah-Msh. 1) 3 Ibn 'Umar said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: "Prayer is not accepted without purification, nor (is) charity (accepted) out of what is acquired by unlawful means."[2] (M-Msh. 3:l.) 4 Anas said, When the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, went to privy, he used to say: "O Allâh! I seek refuge [2. This hadîth and the previous one lay down in general terms that purification is a necessary condition of prayer, which in fact means that a man should always keep himself free from impurities, since prayer is said five times a day. The habit of outward purification is thus developed through an institution which is meant to purify the soul, and a Muslim is required to keep his body, his clothes, in fact, the whole of his environment, clean. Charity like prayer purifies the mind, and as what is acquired by unlawful means is impure, the pure and the impure cannot go together.] in Thee from impure deeds and evil habits."[2] (B. 4:9.) 5 Anas reported, When the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, went out for natural evacuation, I and a boy used to go and with us there used to be a bucket of water.[4] (B. 4:15.) 6 'Abd Allâh said, The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, went to ease himself and he asked me to bring him three pebbles.[5] (B. 4:21.) 7 'Â'ishah said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: [3. Khubuth is the plural of khabîth (an evil person) and khabâ'ith is the plural of khabîthah (an evil person of feminine gender), and the words are generally understood as meaning the devils, but according to the Nihâyah, the first word may also be read as khubth which means impure deeds and the second word may also mean evil habits. Thus from outward defilement attention is directed to inward impurities. 4. Other hadîth speak of stones for cleaning purposes, but water was used when available even after cleaning with earth or stones. These may appear to be minor details, but the minutest details are necessary to develop habits of cleanliness. Water or earth was also used after urinating. 5. This with and the one following speak of pebbles or balls of dry earth for cleaning purposes. Toilet paper would serve the same purpose.] "When one of you goes to ease himself, let him take with him three pebbles with which to clean himself, for these will suffice him." (AD-Msh 3:2.) 8 Jâbir said, When the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, wanted to ease himself he went (to a distant place) until no one could see him.[6] (AD-Msh 3:2.) 9 Abû Mûsâ reported, The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: When one of you wishes to pass urine, let him seek the proper place for urinating."[7] (AD-Msh. 3:2.) [6. For evacuating himself a man must not, therefore, sit in a place where he can be seen by others; i.e., when he goes out into fields. Latrines must be made on the same principle. 7. So there must be either urinals or a man must retire to some other proper place of retirement.] 10 'Â'ishah said, 'The right hand of the Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, was for his ablution and his food, and his left hand for cleaning after easing himself and for removing noxious things. (AD-Msh. 3:2.) 11 Mu'âdh said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: "Abstain from three objects of curse, easing near springs of water and on roads and under (a tree where men sit for) shade."[8] (AD-Msh. 3:2.) 12 Hudhaifah said, I saw myself and the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, going together and he came to a heap of sweepings of a people behind a wall and he was standing as one of [8. This shows a high degree of care for public convenience and the protection of public places and water-sources from contamination.] you stands, then he passed the urine.[9] (B. 4:61.) 13 Abû Hurairah said, When the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, went to the privy, I brought to him water in a small vessel or in a leather bag and he used water for cleaning, then rubbed his hand on the ground,[10] then I brought to him another vessel of water and he made ablution. (AD-Msh. 3:2.) 14 'Â'ishah said, When the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, came out of the privy, he used to say: 'I seek Thy protection." (Tr-Msh. 3:2.) 15 Anas said, When the Prophet, [9. To urinate in a standing posture is therefore not prohibited. 10. This was done to remove any vestige of uncleanness which might remain on the hand after the simple flow of water. Soap may be used for the same purpose.] peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, came out of the privy, he used to say: "Praise be to Allâh Who has removed from me noxiousness and given me health." (IM-Msh. 3:2.) 16 Anas said, The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, spat in a cloth of his.[11] (B. 4:70.) 17 Anas reported that The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, saw phlegm on the front (wall of the mosque) and it was painful to him to such a degree that (signs of) it could be seen in his face. . . Then he took hold of a corner of his sheet and spat in it then turned one part of it over the other and said: [11. Evidently it was a public place where other people were present and by spitting in his handkerchief he showed that it was not proper to spit on the ground in public places. Besides being indecent, it is insanitary.] "Rather let one do like this."[12] (B. 8:31) 18 'Â'ishah said on the authority of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, "The tooth-brush purifies the mouth and is a means of seeking the pleasure of the Lord."[13] (B. 30:27.) 19 Abû Hurairah said, on the authority of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, "Were it not that I would place too heavy a burden on my community, I would have commanded them to use the tooth-brush at every ablution." (B. 30:27.) 20 Anas said, The Messenger of [12. The spittle should be taken in a handkerchief if one is overcome in prayer. 13. The Holy Prophet thus taught that outward cleanness was also a means of pleasing the Lord and that uncleanness was therefore hateful to God.] Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: 'I have spoken to you about the tooth-brush too often." (B. 11:8.) 21 Hudhaifah said, When the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, got up during the night (for tahajjud), he used to clean his mouth with the tooth-brush. (B. 4:73) 22 'Â'ishah said, 'Never did the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, wake up after sleeping at night or in the day, but he used the tooth-brush before he performed ablution."[14] (AD-Msh. 3:1) 23 Shuraih ibn Hânî said, asked 'Â'ishah, What was the first thing the [14. The use of the tooth-brush after sleep is essential because there is no access of light or air into the mouth during sleep, and the dirt that has there accumulated must be cleaned at once.] Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, did when he entered his house? She said, Tooth-brushing. (M-Msh. 3:3.) 24 Sa'îd ibn Zaid said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: "That man has not performed ablution who does not remember Allâh in doing it."[15] (Tr-Msh. 3:4.) 25 Yahyâ al-Mâzinî reported that A man said to 'Abd Allâh ibn Zaid, Canst thou show me how the Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, performed ablution? 'Abd Allâh ibn Zaid said, Yes. [15. Ablution, which means washing of certain parts of the body that are generally exposed and where dust or dirt is likely to settle, is a preparation for going into Divine presence. The object is undoubtedly twofold, that a man should be clean and that he should feel that he stands in need of the purification of the soul as he stands in need of the cleaning of the body. The remembrance of Allâh is needed to direct attention to this. The beginning should be made with Bismillâh as in the case of all important affairs, while h. 42. speaks of the prayer when the ablution ends.] So he sent for water and poured it over his hands and washed his hands twice, then he rinsed his mouth and sniffed water into his nose thrice, then he washed his face thrice, then he washed his hands up to the elbow twice, then he wiped his head with both his hands so that he carried them from the front and brought them back he began with his forehead until he carried them to his neck, then he brought them back to the place from which he had started then he washed his two feet. (B. 4:38.) 26 Ibn 'Abbâs said, The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, performed ablution (washing each part) once only. (B. 4:22.) 27 'Abd Allâh ibn Zaid reported that The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, performed ablution (washing each part) twice. (B. 4:21) 28 It is reported about 'Uthmân that He performed ablution at Maqâ'id, and said, May I not show you the ablution of the Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him? Then he performed ablution (washing each part) thrice.[16] (M-Msh. 3:44) 29 'Â'ishah said, The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, was fond of beginning on the right side, in putting on his shoes and in combing his hair and in performing his ablution, (in fact) in all his actions. (B. 4:31.) [16. The various reports show that there was great latitude in these matters. The cleaning might be effected in some cases by washing once only while in others it might require repetition. Maqâ'id, according to Ibn Hajar, is the name of a place in Madînah. According to others, it means a place where people sit together.] 30 Abn Hurairah said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: When you put on clothes and when you perform ablution, begin with the right side."[17] (AD-Msh. 3:4.) 31 Ibn 'Abbâs reported that The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, wiped his head and also his two ears, the internal parts of them with his two forefingers and the back parts of them with his two thumbs.[18] (Ns-Msh. 3:4.) 32 'Amr ibn Umayyah said, I saw the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, passing his hands over his turban and his boots. (B. 4:48.) [17. In performing ablution the right hand should be washed first and then the left. The same rule is to be followed in washing the feet. 18. The complete Mash (wiping) of the head thus includes the ears, their inner side as well as the outer.] 33 Mughîrah said, I was with the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, in a journey, and I bent down to take off his boots but he said, "Leave them alone, for I put them on in a state of cleanness;"[19] then he passed his hands over them both. (B. 4:49.) 34 Mughîrah said, The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, performed ablution and passed his hands over the socks and the shoes. (A D-Msh. 3:9.) 35 Abû Bakrah reported on the authority of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, that He allowed one who is journeying three days and [19. The word tâhiratain (both being clean) in the hadîth refers to the two feet, but the meaning is generally taken to be that the boots were put on after performing ablution. The next hadîth shows that socks are treated similarly, i.e., it is sufficient to pass wet hands over them when they are worn after performing ablution. This may be done for one day and night, i.e., the socks or boots must bc taken off and the feet washed once in every twenty-four hours, but in the case of one who is journeying the time-limit is three days and nights. See h.] nights and one who is not on a journey one day and night to wipe his boots (instead of washing his feet) when he had put them on in a state of cleanness. (DQ-Msh. 3:9.) 36 Abû Hurairah said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: "Prayer is not accepted of a man who voids himself[20] until he performs ablution." (B. 4:2.) [20. The Arabic word is ahdatha which means originally he caused or occasioned a thing, and is technically applied to the voiding of ordure. When Abû Hurairah was asked, what hadath was, he simply said, breaking wind but it includes the passing of urine, stools and wind. To this must be added sound sleep as stated in h. 39 and vomiting (h.40), though there is a difference of opinion in the latter case. The reason for a fresh ablution after sound sleep seems to be that one does not know if one has passed wind in that condition. Bukhârî makes it clear that ablution is only necessary when something passes out through the makhrajain, the two ways of natural evacuation. The flowing of blood from wounds or the spitting of blood does not necessitate ablution. If a man performs ablution by wiping his boots or socks, and then takes them off, fresh ablution is not necessary (hh, 32, 34). Taking food or milk does not call for fresh ablution. but the mouth should be rinsed in both cases. (B. 4:50, 51, 52.) There are certain hadîth speaking of the necessity of ablution in certain other cases. For instance, there is a hadîth which says that ablution should be performed if one has kissed one's wife, but this is contradicted by other hadîth. The clear rule laid down by Bukhârî that ablution is necessitated only by what passes out of the two outlets of natural evacuation is the safest rule. Sound sleep and vomiting are the only exceptions.] 37 Anas said, The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him , used to perform ablution at every prayer. I (his disciple) said, How did you act? He said, Ablution sufficed one of us until he voided himself. (B. 4:55.) 38 Anas said, The companions of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, used to wait for the night ('Ishâ') prayer until their heads nodded (in drowsiness), then they said their prayers and did not perform ablution. (AD-Msh. 3:l.) 39 Ibn 'Abbâs said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: "Ablution is necessary for him who sleeps reclining, for when he reclines his joints are relaxed." (Tr-Msh. 3:l.) 40 Abu-l-Dardâ' reported that The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, vomited, then performed ablution. (Tr. 1:64.) 41 It is related about Ibn 'Umar that He washed his feet after the water, with which he had washed (other parts), had dried up.[21] (B. 5:10.) 42 Umar said, 'The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: Anyone who performs ablution and does it thoroughly, then says I bear witness that there is no god but Allâh, He is One. there is no associate with Him, and that Muhammad is His servant and His Messenger; O Allâh! make me of those who turn to Thee again and again and make me of [21. There is no harm if there is a little interval in washing the different parts so long as ablution is a continuous act.] those who purify themselves'--the eight doors of paradise are opened to him; he enters it by whichever of them he pleases." (Tr. 1:42.) 43 'Abd Allâh ibn 'Umar reported that The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: "When one of you comes to the Friday gathering, he should take a bath." (B. 11:2.) 44 'Amr ibn Sulaim said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: "Taking a bath on Friday is incumbent on every one who has attained to puberty and he should use the tooth-brush and use scent if he can find it." (B. 11:3.) 45 Abû Hurairah said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said "It is incumbent upon every Muslim that he should take a bath (at least) once in every seven days and wash his head and his whole body."[22] (B. & M.-Msh 3:10) 46 Abû Hurairah said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: "The person who washes a dead body should take a bath." (IM-Msh. 3:11.) 47 Qais ibn 'Âsim reported that [22. Taking a bath once a week, on Fridays, is made incumbent irrespective of other needs. It does not mean that a Muslim should take a bath only once a week; it is the minimum requirement, and the whole body as well as the head must be washed by both men and women, rich and poor, at least once a week. To keep oneself clean has already been stated to be half the faith, and in the hot and even temperate seasons nothing less than a daily bath can serve that purpose, but in the cold season and in the case of generality of people who cannot afford a daily bath, the washing of the whole body once a week is an absolute necessity.] He was initiated into Islâm, and the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, commanded him to take a bath with water and (leaves of) the lot tree.[23] (Tr. Msh. 3:11.) 48 'Â'ishah reported that The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, commanded the taking of a bath on four occasions: on account of janâbah,[24] and on Friday, and in case of cupping, and after washing a dead body. (AD-Msh. 3:11.) 49 'Â'ishah reported that A woman asked the [23. This was a kind of disinfectant; soap would serve the same purpose. A man who is initiated into Islâm must clean himself outwardly also by having a bath, and this was further meant to serve as a hint that he should henceforward aim at both purity of body and purity of mind. 24. Janâbah (from janb meaning a side) is literally the putting of a thing aside or making a person avoid a thing. In the religious terminology of Islâm, the state of Janâbah arises from nocturnal pollution (ihtilâm) and coitus (sexual intercourse) for both men and women. There are contradictory hadîth as to whether bath is necessary in case of sexual intercourse when there is no emission, and Bukhârî favours the view that wudzû' or ablution is sufficient in such a case, but that bath is better. The person who is in a state of janâbah, is called junub. Such a man must take a bath before he can say his prayers.] Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, as to her bathing after menstruation; so he told (her) how to take a bath.[25] (B. 6:13.) 50 (It is related) on the authority of Abû Hurairah that The Prophet. peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, met him on a certain road of Madînah when he (Abu Hurairah) was junub. Considering myself unclean I left him, then I went and took a bath. Then he (Abu Hurairah) came, and (the Prophet) said, "Where wast thou, O Abu Hurairah?" He said, I was junub, so I did not like that I should sit with thee while I was in a state of [25. A bath is necessary for women after menses (haidz) and puerpurium (nifâs), i.e., the flow of blood after childbirth. During the period of menses and puerpurium, a woman is exempted from prayer. Menstruation generally lasts from three to ten days, and a bath is needed when the flow stops, after a minimum period of three days. Bath must necessarily be taken after the maximum period of ten days, and if the flow continues after that, it is called istihâdzah, and the rules relating to menses do not apply to this state.] impurity. He said: "Allâh be glorified, the believer does not get impure."[24] (B. 5:21) 51 Anas said, When a woman among the Jews had her menses, they would not eat with her and would not be with her in the same room; so the companions of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, asked the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, and Allâh revealed to him, "They ask thee about the menses." (2:222.) The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: "Do everything except the sexual intercourse."[27] (M-Msh 3:12.) [26. This hadîth shows that the state of janâbah is not a state of defilement. The junub can do everything; he is simply required to take a bath before saying his prayers. 27. This Hadîth removes another great misconception. The woman, who has her menses on, is not impure. There is a large number of hadîth showing that her social relation with her husband or other members of society remain unchanged.] 52 Ibn 'Abbâs said, Maimûnah said, I placed water for the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, to bathe with, and he washed his hand twice or thrice, then he poured water on his left hand, then he washed his private parts, then he rubbed his hand on earth, then he rinsed his mouth and sniffed water into his nose and washed his face and his two hands (up to the elbow), then he poured water on his body, then he changed his place and washed his two feet. (B. 5:5.) 53 'Â'ishah said, The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, did not perform ablution after taking a bath. (Tr.-Msh. 3:5.) 54 Ya'lâ said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, saw a man bathing (naked) in an open place; so he ascended the pulpit and praised and glorified Allâh, then said: "Surely Allâh is the Possessor of modesty, Concealer of faults--He loves modesty and concealing of that in which there is shame; so when one of you takes a bath, let him screen himself from being seen."[28] (AD-Msh. 3:5.) 55 Abu Dharr said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: Pure earth serves the purpose of a Muslim's ablution, though he may not find water for ten years. When he finds water, he should wash with [28. That is to say, he should either be in a closed bath-room where he cannot be seen by others, or if he is in an open place, he should cover himself from waist to knees.] it his body, for that is better."[29] (AD-Msh. 3:10.) 56 'Ammâr said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, sent me on some business, and (while journeying) I became a junub and did not find water, so I rolled about on earth as an animal rolls, and I mentioned this to the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, He said, "It was sufficient for thee that thou shouldst have done thus;" and he struck his hand on earth once, then he shook off its dust and wiped with it the back of the (right) hand with the left or the back of the left with the (right) hand, then wiped [29. Tayammum from am ma (he repaired to a thing) means resorting to earth when one is unable to find water in sufficient quantity for ablution or bath, or when one is unable to use it on account of illness or for fear of contracting disease. If water is available in such quantity as can barely suffice for drinking or preparing food, it is permissible to resort to tayammum instead of ablution or bath.] his face with both (hands).[30] (B. 7:8.) 57 It is related that 'Amr ibn al-'Âs became a junub on a cold night, so he resorted to tayammum and recited the verse, "Do not kill yourselves, for Allâh is Merciful to you" (4: 29). This was mentioned to the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, he did not censure (him.) [31] (B. 7:7.) 58 Jâbir said, We went out on a journey, and a stone struck a man from among us and [30. This hadîth shows that tayammum takes the place not only of ablution but also of bath. It also shows the manner in which tayammum is performed. The hands should be struck on clean earth, then the dust should be shaken. or blown off, then the back of each hand should be wiped with the other and then the face should be wiped with both hands. There are other hadîth which give a slightly different process. but as the object is simply to remind a man that he is going to a Higher Presence. this simple process serves the purpose well enough. Bukhârî relates that Yahyâ ibn Sa'îd said that there was no harm in performing tayammum on sabkhah, i.e., on ground on the surface of which salt had appeared (B. 7:6) And generally anything would do, or, the surface of which dust might have settled. 31. It is related in one hadîth that the night was severely cold, and the Holy Prophet considered the excuse to be valid. In this case 'Amr led the prayers.] wounded his head, and he bad nocturnal pollution ... .... (The Prophet) said: ".......It was sufficient for him to perform tayammum and to have a bandage on the wounded part, then to wipe it and wash the rest of his body."[32] (AD-Msh. 3:10.) [32. This hadîth shows that when it is harmful to apply water to a particular part of the body, it is sufficient to wipe that part. In this case the wounded man had a bath on the advice of his friends, and the wound got septic and he died. The Prophet upbraided his companions for giving an advice which was not based on knowledge.]

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1 Sahil Badruddin = "In addition, "Zakat literally means “purification,” and was not an act of charity but of religious devotion: benevolence and care for the poor were the first and most enduring virtues preached by Muhammad in Mecca"-Reza Aslan, No god but God "
2 Enakshi Ganguly = """They will ask you about menstruation. Say, 'It is harmful, so keep away from women during it. Do not approach them until they are purified of it, when they are purified you may approach them as Allah has ordained." (Qur'an 2:222)Allah has only prohibited sexual intercourse for menstruating women and nothing else. The verse starts off with "They ask you about menstruation", which further emphasises that only Allah makes such prohibitions in the Qur'an, which is the message of the prophet. The prophetic prohibitions are the Quranic prohibitions since Allah is the One Who provides the answers. "They ask you about..., Say..." are frequent occurrences in the Qur'an. The reason pointed out in the verse for the prohibition of intercourse during menstruation is biological i.e. "it is harmful" and no spiritual indication is given."Source: http://www.quranicpath.com/misconceptions/menstruation_islam.html"