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1. "O you who believe! Go not near prayer when you are intoxicated until you know what you say" (4:43). 2. "And when you journey in the earth, there is no blame on you if you shorten the prayer" (4:10). 3. "And when thou art amongst them and leadest them in prayer, let a party of them stand up with thee ........ then when they have prostrated themselves, let them go to your rear, and let another party who have not prayed come forward and pray with thee" (4:102). 4. ''And they who pass the night prostrating themselves before their Lord and standing" (25:64). 5. "Thou wilt see them bowing down, prostrating themselves, seeking grace from Allâh and pleasure" (48:29). 6, "O you who believe! Bow down and prostrate yourselves and serve your Lord" (22:77). 7. "Those who remember Allâh, standing and sitting." (3:190). Every prayer-service consists of two, three or four units (h. 1), the unit being called a rak'ah (lit., an act of bowing) which consists of qiyâm (standing) rukû' (bowing of the head and body). sajdah (prostration) and jalsah or qa'dah (sitting), in the order in which they are mentioned. These are all the worshipful positions which a man can adopt, and they are mentioned in the Holy Qur'ân in different places, not of course in this order (vv. 3-7.) It will be noted that after giving the number of rak'ahs in a particular prayer it is added. "and after it two rak'ahs" (h. 1). This latter is the supererogatory part (nafl), which is said singly and is commonly known as sunnah (the Prophet's practice), as distinguished from the congregational prayer which is called maktûbah (obligatory) (H. vii:4), and is commonly known as fardz. There is perfect agreement in the whole Muslim world as to the number of rak'ahs in the congregational service. In the case of prayers consisting of four fardz rak'ahs, the number of rak'ahs is halved when journeying, while the sunnah may be dropped altogether (v. 2; h. 32). A full description of the different postures of the rak'ahs--a practical revelation to the Holy Prophet (H. ix:3)--and the arrangement in which they follow each other are given in h. 3. Further details relating to these postures are contained in hh. 4-7. Every posture or change from one posture to another is connected with some kind of dhikr,[*] and the man who prays should know its significance (v. 1; h. 8). The most frequently occurring dhikir in prayer is the takbîr (magnifying). i.e., the utterance of Allâhu Akbar (Allâh is the Greatest ). These words are uttered first when a man begins the prayer-service and then on every change from one position to another, except when he rises from rukû' (h. 9). An additional dhikr after rising from rukû' is mentioned in h. 19. After the first utterance of Allâhu Akbar, one or other of the dhikrs mentioned in hh. 10, 11 is uttered in a voice audible to oneself only. The latitude given in this matter shows that any other prayer may be added. It is, however, with the Fâtihah that the service really opens (h. 12). It is so essential to prayer, that without it no prayer is acceptable (h. 13). The recital of the Fâtihah is followed by Âmîn, which should be uttered in a loud voice when the Fâtihah is recited in a loud voice (h. 14). In the first two rak'ahs the Fâtihah is followed by the recital of any portion of the Holy Qur'ân (hh. 15, 16). There are many forms of dhikr for rukû' and sajdah (hh. 17, 18). to which any prayer in any language may be added, especially in sajdah in which state a person is enjoined to make most petitions, as he is nearest to God when he humbles himself most (h. 21). in fact, the whole of the prayer-service is a petition to the Divine Being, and any prayer may he addressed in any position, so much so that the Holy Prophet used to address prayers even when reciting the Holy Qur'ân (b.18). Special intercessory prayers were offered on rising from rukû (h. 20). A prayer is also addressed in the respite between the two sajdahs (h. 22). Prayers are also offered in the sitting position (hh. 23-26). But like a petitioner who takes advantage of an opportunity for being heard, some sort of dhikr is resorted to even after the prayer is finished (hh 28, 29). The service ends with taslîm (h. 27). Some points of minor importance are added at the end. The first relates to the procedure to be adopted when a mistake is made through forgetfulness (hh. 30, 31); the second to prayer when journeying and to the duration of the journey (hh. 32, 33). [*. Dhikr means literally remembrance, and in relation to prayer it includes all utterances regarding the praise and glorification of God, recitations from the Holy Qur'ân and supplications to God.] 1 Ibn 'Umar said, I prayed with the Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, when staying at home and when journeying; so he said the Zuhr prayer, when staying at home, four rak'ahs and after it two rak'ahs and he said the 'Asr prayer four rak'ahs and there was nothing after it, and he said the Maghrib prayer three rak'ahs and after it two rak'ahs and he said the 'Ishâ' prayer four rak'ahs; and he said the Zuhr prayer, when journeying, two rak'ahs and after it two rak'ahs, and the 'Asr two rak'ahs and there was nothing after it, and the Maghrib three rak'ahs and after it two rak'ahs, and the 'Ishâ' two rak'ahs and after it two rak'ahs.[1] (Ah. 11, 90.) 2 'Â'ishah reported that The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, never omitted saying four rak'ahs before Zuhr and two rak'ahs before Fajr.[2] (B. 19:34.) 3 Abû Hurairah reported that A man entered the [1. Rak'ah (from raka'a, he bent or bowed down), taken as meaning a single act of standing in prayer, is really a unit in the Islamic institution of prayer. It consists really of all the four possible worshipful positions. viz., standing, bowing down, prostration and sitting. Its full description is given in h. 4. A man first stands in prayer, then bows down, then stands upright again. then falls down in prostration. then raises himself up and sits down. then falls down in prostration again and then raises himself up again. This is called one rak'ah, After every two rak'ahs the sitting position is assumed for a longer time. The standing position is called qiyâm, the bowing down rukû', the prostration sajdah and the sitting position jalsah when it is a short sitting between the two sajdahs, and qa'dah when it is a longer sitting for reciting tashahhud after two rak'ahs or at the end of prayer. This hadîth contains full details of the number of rak'ahs for the different prayers with the exception of Fajr, which consists of two rak'ahs, but the statement made here that nafl or sunnah rak'ahs were said during journeys is contradicted by Bukhârî (h. 32). 2. From the hadîth that have gone before it appears that he said two rak'ahs before Zuhr. It, is therefore, reasonable to conclude that sometimes he said two rak'ahs sunnah and sometimes four.] mosque, and the Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, sitting in a corner of the mosque; ........ he said, Teach me, O Messenger of Allâh! He said: "When thou risest for the prayer, then perform the ablution in a right manner, then turn thy face towards the Qiblah, then say Allâhu Akbar, then recite what thou canst afford of the Qur'ân, then bow down until thou art at rest in bowing down (rukû'), then raise thyself up until thou art firm in the standing posture, then fall down in prostration until thou art at rest in prostration, then raise thyself up until thou art at rest in sitting, then fall down in prostration until thou art at rest in prostration, then raise thyself up until thou art at rest in sitting[3]; and, according to one report, then raise thyself up until thou art firm in the standing posture; then do this in the whole of thy prayer." (B. & M-Msh. 4:10.) 4 Abû Humaid al-Sâ'idî said, I best guard the prayer of the Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him. When he said Allâhu Akbar[4] I saw him raise his hands to his shoulders; and When he performed the rukû', he firmly held his two knees with his two hands, and he bent his back (levelling it with his head); then when he raised his head, he stood erect until every bone of the spine returned to its [3. This applies when two rak'ahs have been said. 4. This is called takbîr tahrîmah, the first takbîr with which a person enters the state of prayer.] regular place; and when he performed the sajdah, he laid his forearms (on the ground), not spreading them out as a bed, nor contracting them (to his sides), and he made the tips of the toes of his two feet face towards the Qiblah; and when he sat after (finishing) two rak'ahs, he sat on his left foot and made the right one stand erect; and when he sat after the last rak'ah, he brought forward his left foot and made the other stand erect, and sat on his sitting-place.[5] (B. 10:145.) 5 Sahl ibn Sa'd said, Order was given to the people that in prayer a [5. In this state the left foot was brought forward to make himself more at ease, as the sitting after the last rak'ah lasted longer. According to B. 10: 145. where a person is unable to take a particular position he may take any other in which he finds himself comfortable.] man should place his right hand on his left forearm.[6] (B. 10:87.) 6 Ibn 'Abbâs said, The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, was commanded that he should perform sajdah on seven members of the body, the forehead[7], the two hands, the two knees and the two feet, and that. he should not arrange hair nor garments (while praying). (B. 10:131) 7 Ibn 'Umar said, When the Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, sat in tashahhud[8], he used to place his left hand on [6. This is the position of the hands in qiyâm, whether the hands are placed on the breast or below the navel. 7. Including the tip of the nose (B. 10:135). 8. Tashahhud is the dhikr referred to in h 23. It is so called because it ends with the Kalimah Shahâdah.] his left knee and his right hand on his right knee.[9] (M-Msh. 4:15.) 8 Anas reported on the authority of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, (who said): "When a person is drowsy in his payers, let him go to sleep until he knows what he recites."[10] (B. 4:51) 9 Abu Hurairah said, When the Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, got up for prayer, he used to say Allâhu Akbar when he assumed qiyâm; [9. The same is the position of the hands when one sits between the two sajdahs. 10. This direction shows that the Holy Prophet wanted the people to know the significance of what they recited in their prayers. Mere repetition of words without understanding their meaning does not serve the real purpose of prayer. The recitations, which are essential in prayer-service, are so few that a child, as well as an adult, can learn their significance within three months. It may. however, be noted that some of the phrases, which are more frequently repeated in prayer, are understood by Muslims generally, whether they are educated or not. such as Allâhu Akbar, Subhâna Rabbiya-l-'Âzîm, etc. Moreover, the different postures are a great help in creating a prayerful mood.] then he said Allâhu Akbar when he bowed down for rukû'; then he said, "Allâh listens to him who praises Him", when he raised his back from rukû'; then he said while he was standing, "Our Lord, Thine is the praise then he said Allâhu Akbar when he fell down (In sajdah); then he said Allâhu Akbar when he raised his head; then he said Allâhu Akbar when he performed the (second) sajdah; then he said Allâhu Akbar when he raised his head; then he did this in the whole of his prayer until he finished it, and he said Allâhu Akbar when he rose from the sitting posture after two (rak'ahs[11]). (B. 10:117.) [11. This hadîth mentions the different adhkâr to be uttered in the change from one posture to another. It will be noted that except for what is uttered in rising from rukû', Allâhu Akbar (Allâh is the Greatest) is uttered in all other changes including the one when a person enters the state of prayer.] 10 Abû Hurairah said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, used to remain silent between the (opening) takbîr and the recital (of the Qur'ân)--I think, he said--a little. I said, May my father and my mother be thy sacrifice, O Messenger of Allâh! thy silence between the takbîr and the recital, what sayest thou (in that interval)? He said, "I say: 'O Allâh! Keep faults as distant from me as the east is distant from the west; O Allâh! cleanse me of all faults as a white cloth is cleansed of dirt; O Allâh! wash away my faults with water and snow and hail."[12] (B. 10:89.) 11 'Â'ishah said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, used to say, when he opened the prayer: "Glory to Thee, O Allâh! and Thine is the praise, and blessed is Thy name and exalted is Thy majesty and there is none to be served besides Thee" (AD-Msh. 4:11.) 12 Anas reported that The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, and Abu Bakr and 'Umar used to open the prayer with al-hamdu lillâhi Rabbi-l-'âlamîn.[13] (B. 10:89.) [12. The dhikr mentioned in this hadîth and the next goes by the name of istiftâh which means the desiring to open, the real opening of prayer being the chapter Fâtihah as noted in h. 12. 13. The opening of the Holy Qur'ân is thus also the opening of prayer, Prayer is said to open with al hamdu li-llâhi (the Fâtihah), because it is with this prayer that the imâm opens the prayer in a loud voice, the dhikr called istiftâh being uttered individually in a voice audible to oneself only.] 13 'Ubâdah reported that 'The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: "There is no prayer for him who does not recite the Opening (chapter) of the Book."[14] (B. 10:95.) 14 Abu Mûsâ said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: "When you pray, set right your ranks; then one of you should act as your imâm, so when he says the takbîr, say the takbîr, and when he says ghairi-l-maghdzûb-i 'alai-him wa la-dzzâllîn, say âmîna,[15] Allâh will accept your prayer. (M-Msh. 4:12.) [14. The Fâtihah is thus an essential part of every rak'ah of every prayer. Abu Hurairah is reported to have said that the Fâtihah should be recited in a low voice even when following the imâm (M-Msh. 4:12). 15. Âmîna (from the root amn meaning security) occurs always with fatihah over the final letter, and it means O Allâh! Listen to or Answer my prayer or May it be so! (N). It is generally uttered at the end of prayers: when the imâm utters a prayer, those who follow say âmîna, The Fâtihah being a prayer is generally followed by âmîna and when the imâm recites the Fatihah in a loud voice, those who follow should say âmîna in a loud voice. Bukhârî has a chapter (10:111) with the heading "The saying of the imâm âmîna in a loud voice", and under this head he says: "Ibn al-Zubair and those behind him said âmîna until there was an echo in the mosque".] 15 Abû Qatâdah reported that The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, used to recite Umm al-Kitâb (the Fâtihah) and along with it another sûrah in the first two rak'ahs of Zuhr and 'Asr prayers, and now and then he made us hear a verse, and he used to lengthen (recital) in the first rak'ah.[16] (B. 10:109.) 16 Abû Râfi' said, I said with Abu Hurairah the 'Ishâ' prayer, and he recited Idha-l-samâ' u-nshaqqat (ch. 84), and performed sajdah[17]. I enquired from him, and [16. In the first two rak'ahs of all prayers, some portion of the Holy Qur'ân is added to the Fâtihah, but in the third and fourth rak'ahs only the Fâtihah is recited. There are many hadîth in which it is related that the Holy Prophet recited such and such a sûrah in the Maghrib, 'Ishâ' or Fajr prayer, the recitation in these three prayers being in a loud voice, as against the Zuhr and 'Asr prayers in which the recitation was in a voice audible to oneself. 17. There are several verses in the Holy Qur'ân, fourteen in all, the recital of which is followed by an actual prostration. One such verse occurs in ch. 84. The practice of the Holy Prophet was that he performed a sajdah on the recital of such a verse even when he recited it in prayer-service.] he said, I performed the sajdah behind Abu-l-Qâsim, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, and I will continue to perform the sajdah in it until I meet him. (B. 10:100.) 17 'Â'ishah said, The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, used to say in his rukû' and in his sajdah: "Glory to Thee, O Allâh, our Lord! And Thine is the praise; grant me protection, O Allâh! (B. 10:121) 18 Hudhaifah reported that He prayed with the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, and he (the Prophet) used to say in his rukû', 'Glory to my Lord, the Great', and in his sajdah, 'Glory to my Lord, the Most High', and he did not recite any verse speaking of Divine mercy but he paused and asked (for mercy), and he did not recite any verse speaking of Divine punishment but he paused and sought refuge (in Allâh).[18] (Tr-Msh. 4:13.) 19 Rifâ'ah said, We were one day praying behind the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, So when he raised his head from rukû' (and) said, 'Allâh listens to him who praises Him," a man behind him said, Our Lord! And Thine is the praise, abundant praise, most excellent, blessed therein. When he finished (the prayer), he said, "Who uttered (the words)?" The man said, I. He said, I saw over thirty angels hastening [18. This shows that the whole prayer should be made a supplication to God, so that even when reciting the Qur'ân in prayer one should make supplications to the Divine Being for His mercy and seek refuge in Him. The dhikr in rukû' and sajdah, as mentioned in this hadîth, should be repeated thrice at least, as other hadîth show.] who should write them first."[19] (B. 10:126.) 20 Abû Hurairah said, O And when the Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, raised his head saying, "Allâh listens to him who praises Him, our Lord! and Thine is the praise" he used to pray for some people mentioning them by name and said: "O Allâh! Deliver Walîd ibn al-Walîd and Salamah ibn Hishâm, and 'Ayyâsh ibn Abî Rabî'ah and the weak from among the believers; O Allâh! make severe Thy hold on Mudzar and make these to them years (of draught) like the years of Joseph"[20] (B. 10:128.) [19. From this it appears that those who prayed were not bound by uttering only prescribed words but were free to give vent to their feelings as best they could. The dhikr mentioned here is now generally adopted, as it was approved by the Holy Prophet. 20. The prayer after rising from rukû' is known as qunût, the name given to the {footnote } special prayer of witr. This hadîth further shows that any petition whatsoever may be made in any posture during the prescribed prayers. The Holy Prophet spoke the Arabic language and he therefore made all supplications to God in Arabic. Following this practice everyone is at liberty to ask for anything from God in his own language.] 21 Abû Hurairah said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said, "The nearest that the servant is to his Lord is when he is in sajdah so make most petitions (in sajdah)."[21] (M-Msh. 4:14.) 22 Ibn 'Abbâs said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, used to say between the two sajdahs: "O Allâh! Forgive me and have mercy on me and guide me and grant me security and grant me sustenance." (AD-Msh. 4:14.) [21. The state of sajdah or prostration is a state of utmost humility. and the humbler a man feels before the Great Maker, the nearer he is to Him. He is told to make most of his petitions in this state. These petitions may be made in any language. Undoubtedly those made in the language which a man generally speaks would give the best expression to his deep feelings and are most fitted to lay open his mind before God.] 23 'Abd Allâh said, 'When we said our prayers with the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, we said, Peace be on Allâh from His servants........; so the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said to us: "Do not say, Peace be on Allâh, for Allâh is the Author of peace; but say, 'All services rendered by words and bodily actions and sacrifice of wealth are due to Allâh. Peace be to Thee, O Prophet! and the mercy of Allâh and His blessings. Peace be to us and the righteous servants of Allâh,'--for when you say this, it reaches every servant ( Of Allâh) in heaven and in earth--'I bear witness that none deserves to be worshipped but Allâh, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and His Messenger.' Then one should choose any petition which he likes most and pray (to Allâh).[22] (B. 10:150.) 24 Abd Allâh ibn Mas'ûd said, I was saying prayers, and the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, was present and Abu Bakr and 'Umar were with him. When I assumed the sitting posture, I began with extolling Allâh, then I repeated salâ on the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, then I prayed for myself." The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said, "Ask (and) thou wilt be given, [22. As other hadîth show, this prayer is offered in the sitting position, called qa'dah, which is necessarily adopted after every two rak'ahs and after the final rak'ah. It is known as tashahhud on account of the shahâdah (bearing of witness) in the concluding sentence. 23. This, of course, was as taught by the Holy Prophet himself. The extolling of Allâh is as taught in h. 23, the salâ on the Holy Prophet as taught in h. 25 and the prayer for oneself as taught in h. 26 and other hadîth.] ask (and) thou wilt be given."[24] (Tr-Msh. 4:16.) 25 'Abd al-Rahmân said, We' said, O Messenger of Allâh! How should we offer you salâ? ........ He said, "Say: 'O Allâh! Exalt Muhammad and the true followers of Muhammad as Thou didst exalt Abraham and the true followers of Abraham, for Thou are Praised, Magnified. O Allâh! Bless Muhammad and the true followers of Muhammad as Thou didst bless Abraham and the true followers of Abraham, for Thou are Praised, Magnified."[25] (B. & M.-Msh. 4:16.) [24. This is meant to lay stress on the fact that the observance of prayer does not mean the utterance of certain stated formulæ only; it is really an occasion of opening one's mind before the Maker to its fullest extent. 25. The salâ on the Holy Prophet, as the words show, is really a prayer for the exaltation and spread of the Holy Prophet's cause; in other words, for the exaltation and spread of truth in the world.] 26 'Â'ishah reported that The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, used to say in his prayers: "O Allâh! I seek refuge in Thee from the punishment of the grave,[26] and I seek refuge in Thee from the tribulation of al-Masîh al-Dajjâl[27] (the Anti-Christ), and I seek [26. The grave really stands for the condition after death till the day of Resurrection. 27. Al-Masîh is the Arabic word for the Messiah or the Christ, and al-Dajjâl (from dajl meaning covering or covering of truth with falsehood) is the Anti-Christ, so called "because he will cover the earth with his adherents," or "because of his lying in arrogating to himself godship." or "because he will traverse most of the regions of earth", or "because he will cover mankind with his infidelity", or "because he will cover the truth with falsehood," or "because he will involve men in confusion or doubt by falsehood or will manifest the contrary of what he conceals," or from dajjâl, signifying gold or gold-wash for gilding, "because treasures will follow him wherever he goes," or from dajjâla, signifying a great company of men journeying together covering the ground by their multitude or carrying goods for traffic. (LL.) The tribulation of the Anti-Christ is spoken of as the greatest tribulation that has appeared in the world, and it is stated in hadîth that the first and the last ten verses of the chapter entitled Kahf (ch. 18) afford a protection from it: "He who remembers the first ten verses of the chapter entitled the Cave is protected from the tribulation of the Dajjâl" (A.D. 36:14; Tr. 31:59; IM. 36:33; Ah. VI, 446). Now the verses referred to speak of the Christian doctrine, and therefore there is not the least doubt that the tribulation of the Dajjâl means the tribulation of the Christian or materialistic civilization with which we are faced in these days, and the name Anti-Christ given to it is due to the fact that it is opposed to the true teaching of Christ, who never taught the doctrines of Sonship and Atonement.] refuge in Thee from the trials of life and the trials of death; O Allâh! I seek refuge in Thee from sins and from being in debt." (B. 10:149.) 27 'Abd Allâh said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, used to utter taslîm on his right hand side, "Peace be on you and the mercy of Allâh", until the white of his right cheek could be seen, and on his left, "Peace be on you and the mercy of Allâh", until the white of his left cheek could be seen.[28] (AD-Msh. 4:17.) 28 Ibn 'Abbâs reported that [28. The Taslîm is the final act of prayer, and its words are the same as the words of the greetings of Muslims to each other. It may be noted that the prayer of the Muslim begins with the greatness of Allâh (in Allâhu Akbar) and ends with the mercy of Allâh (in rahmatu-llâh).] The raising of voices with dhikr when the people turned away from the obligatory prayer was the practice in the time of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him. (B. 10:155.) 29 Thaubân said, When the Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, turned back from his prayer, he used to resort to istighfâr thrice, and said: "O Allâh! Thou art the Author of peace and from Thee is peace, Blessed art Thou, O Lord of Glory and Honour." (M-Msh. 4:18.) 30 Abd Allâh ibn Buhainah ...... said, The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, led them in the Zuhr (prayer), and he stood up after the first two raka'ahs and did not sit, and the people [29. This hadîth and h. 29 speak of the dhikr uttered individually in a loud voice when the congregational service was over. The practice now generally in vogue--the imâm and the congregation raising hands in silent prayer--cannot be traced to the Holy Prophet.] stood up with him. When he finished the prayer and the people waited for taslîm, he uttered the takbîr while sitting and performed two sajdahs before he pronounced the taslîm, then he pronounced the taslîm.[30] (B. 10:146) 31 Abû Sa'îd said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: "When one of you has a doubt about his prayer and he does not know how many rak'ahs he has said, whether three or four, let him dismiss the doubt and [39. The Holy Prophet forgot to sit after the second rak'ah and performed two sajdahs before taslîm. This is called sajdah al sahw, sahw meaning forgetting. Another hadîth shows that the Holy Prophet said two rak'ahs instead of four, and when he was informed of it, he first completed the number and then performed two sajdahs (B. 22:3). According to another hadîth (B. 8:31; 22:2) when five rak'ahs were said instead of four, and the Holy Prophet was informed of this after finishing the prayer, he performed only two sajdahs which were followed by taslîm. In all cases the sajdahs were followed by taslîm. only. In 22: 4, Bukhârî quotes Qatâdah that there is no additional tashahhud in cases of forgetfulness. When the imâm makes a mistake, any one of those following him may point it out to him simply by saying Subhân Allâh, the implication being that every human being is liable to error.] proceed on what he is certain, then let him perform two sajdahs before he pronounces the taslîm." (M-Msh 4:20.) 32 Hafs ibn 'Âsim said, I asked Ibn 'Umar. He said, I have been in the company of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, and I never saw him saying the sunnah while journeying.[31] (B. 18:10) 33 Ibn 'Abbâs said, The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, stayed for nineteen days shortening the prayer, so when we were in journey for nineteen days we shortened, and when it was above that we completed (the prayer).[32] (B. 18:l.) [31. The Holy Prophet. however, said the witr prayer in journey ( B. 14:6 ), and his tahajjud prayer as well (B. 18:6). The sunnah before the Fajr prayer are an exception, as one hadîth shows that he never dropped them (B. 19:22). 32. According to this hadîth. a person who has to stay at one place even for nineteen days in the course of a journey may continue to shorten the prayer. But as nineteen days is nowhere spoken of as the limit, the prayer may be shortened even for a longer period in such a case. When a person settles down at a place, the case is different, and he must complete the prayer. So also in touring when that is part of the duty of a person.]

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1 Sahil Badruddin = ""Even the most cursory analysis of the development of the Shariah demonstrates how both the law and the Revelation grew “along with the Islamic community.” The Quran itself clearly indicates that while its message is eternal, it was revealed in response to very specific historical situations. The more Muhammad’s community evolved, the more the Revelation changed to adapt to its needs. Indeed, during the twenty-two years of Muhammad’s ministry, the Quran was in an almost constant state of flux, sometimes altering dramatically depending on where and when a verse was revealed, whether in Mecca or Medina, whether at the beginning or the end of Muhammad’s life. Occasionally, these changes led to what appear to be significant textual contradictions. For example, the Quran initially took a somewhat neutral stance on the drinking of wine and the practice of gambling, claiming that in both “there is great sin and some benefit for people, though the sin is greater than the benefit” (2:219). A few years later, another verse was revealed that, while still not prohibiting drinking and gambling, urged believers to refrain from gambling and not to “come to prayer while intoxicated” (4:43). Some time after that, however, the Quran explicitly outlawed both drinking and gambling, calling them “acts of Satan” and associating them with idolatry, the greatest sin (5:90). In this way, the previous verses, which condemned but did not forbid drinking and gambling, appear to have been abrogated by another, later verse, which unambiguously prohibited "No god but God, Reza Aslan"
2 Enakshi Ganguly = ""Every prayer is divided into 'Rak`ats'. The Fajr (morning) prayer has two rak`ats, the Zuhr (Afternoon), Asr (Evening) and Ishaa (Night) prayers have four rak`ats each and the Maghrib(offered after sunset) prayer has three rak`ats."Source: http://www.understanding-islam.com/q-and-a/miscellaneous-issues/what-is-rak-ah-and-wudhu-5530"
3 Enakshi Ganguly = ""Dhikr means remembering and commemorating God. It is a clear and explicit order of the Noble Quran.Two of the verses of the Holy Quran pertainig to dhikr are:So (in return for all that) always remember and make mention of Me (when service to Me is due), that I may remember and make mention of you (when judgment and recompense are due); and give thanks to Me, and do not be ungrateful to Me. (Al-Baqarah Surah, 2:152)O you who believe! When you meet a host in battle, stand firm and remember and mention God much, that you may triumph. (Al-Anfal Surah, 8:45)"Source: http://www.questionsonislam.com/article/what-does-8220dhikr8221-mean"
4 Enakshi Ganguly = ""...the bowing down following the recitation of theQur'an in the standing position while praying according to Islamic ritual (salat). There is a consensus on the obligatory nature of the rukūʿ. The position of rukūʿis established by bending over, putting one's hands on one's knees, and remaining in that position until the individual attains "calmness"."SOURCE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruku"