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1. "O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before You, so that you may guard (against evil); ...... and those who find it hard to do so may effect a redemption by feeding a poor man" (2:183, 184). 2. "The month of Ramadzân is that in which the Qur'ân was revealed; ...... Therefore, whoever of you witnesses the month, he shall fast during it, and whoever is sick or on a journey (he shall fast) a (like) number of other days" (2:185). 3. "It is made lawful to you to approach your wives on the night of the fast: they are an apparel for you and you are an apparel for them ...... and eat and drink until the whiteness of the day becomes distinct to you from the blackness of the night at dawn, then complete the fast till night" (2:187). The directions relating to fasts are all contained in vv. 2:183 -187. Fasts are to be kept during the 29 or 30 days of Ramadzân (v. 2). The Fast consists in abstaining daily, from dawn till sunset, from food and drink and sexual intercourse (v. 3). Fasting is recognised in hadîth as one of the pillars of Islâm (H. ii:5, 6), but too much voluntary fasting is prohibited (H. ii:3.). While tasting, one must cultivate the habit of abstaining from evil, from foul talk and falsehood (hh. 1. 2), and of charity to fellow-men (h. 3). Fasting starts with the first day of Ramadzân and ends with the last day of it. Ramadzân being a lunar month, its beginning and end depend on the appearance of the new moon (H. xii. 1, 2). Fast must not be kept on a doubtful day (h. 4). The fast begins when dawn appears (h. 5), and ends when the sun sets (h. 6). When fasting, it is recommended that one should have a meal in the morning (h. 7). a little before dawn (h. 8). Breaking the fast when one is journeying is permitted. but fasting is allowed in such a case unless it entails hardship (hh. 9. 10). One who is ill, the pregnant woman, the woman who gives suck, and a very old person may feed a needy person instead of fasting (h. 11). A woman should not fast when she is menstruating, but she should fast for the same number of days afterwards (h. 12). When for some reason. the number of fasts is to be completed after Ramadzân, it may be done at any time before the next Ramadzân (h. 13). Fasting on 'Îd days is strictly prohibited (h. 14). When a person eats or drinks forgetting that he is fasting, the fast is not broken (h. 15). Cooling oneself, taking a bath, gargling or rinsing the mouth, and tasting of the food in the cooking-pot do not break the fast (h. 16), nor does vomiting (h. 17). I'tikâf or keeping to the mosque during the last ten days of Ramadzân, and not going out of it except for a need, may be resorted to by those who fast, and it is in these nights that the Laila al-Qadr must be sought (hh. 18,19). 1 Abû Hurairah reported, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: "Fasting is an armour with which one protects oneself; so let not him (who fasts) utter immodest (or foul) speech, nor let him act in an ignorant manner; and if a man quarrels with him or abuses him, he should say twice, I am fasting. And by Him in Whose hand is my soul, the odour of the mouth of one fasting is sweeter in the estimation of Allâh than the odour of muskh--gives up his food and his drink and his (sexual) desire for MY sake; fasting is for Me and I will grant its reward; and a virtue brings reward ten times like it." (B. 30:2 .) 2 Abû Hurairah said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: "He who does not give up uttering falsehood and acting according to it, Allâh has no need of his giving up his food and his drink." (B. 30:8 .) 3 Ibn 'Abbâs said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, was the most generous of all people, and he was most generous in Ramadzân, when Gabriel met him, and he met him in every night of Ramadzân and read with him the Qur'ân; so the Messenger of Allâh. peace and blessings was of Allâh be on him, more generous in the doing of good than the wind which is sent forth (on every body). (B. 1:1 .) 4 Silah said, reporting on the authority of 'Ammâr, Whoever keeps fast on a doubtful day, disobeys Abu-l-Qâsim[1], peace and blessings of Allâh be on him. (B. 30:11 .) 5 'Adiyy ibn Hâtim said, 'When it was revealed, "Until the khait al-abyadz becomes distinct to you from the khait al-aswad", I betook myself to a black cord and a white cord[2] and put them under my pillow, and I looked at them (now and then) during the night [1. Abu-l-Qâsim is the kunyah of the Holy Prophet. 2. Khait literally means a cord.] but I could not distinguish between them; then I came to the Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, in the morning and I mentioned this to him. He said," By this is meant only the blackness of the night and the whiteness of the day." (B. 30:16 ) 6 Umar said, 'The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: "When the night comes on from there and the day departs on this side and the sun goes down, the one who is fasting should break the fast." (B. 30:43 .) 7 Anas said, The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: "Have the meal before dawn, for there is blessing in the meal before dawn." (B. 30:20 .) 8 Abû Hâzim said that he heard Sahl ibn Sa'd saying, I used to have my meal before dawn in my family, then I used to hasten to overtake the morning prayer with the Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him. (B. 9:27 ) 9 Anas said, We used to be on journey with the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, and he who kept the fast did not find fault with him who broke it, nor did he who broke the fast find fault with him who kept it. (B. 30:37 .) 10 Jâbir said, The Messenger of Allâh. peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, was on a journey, and he saw a crowd and a man who was placed under a shade. He said, "What is this?" They said, He is one fasting. He said "There is no great virtue. in fasting when on journey." (B. 30:36 .) 11 'Atâ' said, One should break the fast on account of illness, whatever it may be, as Allâh has said. And Hasan and Ibrâhîm said, concerning the woman who gives suck and the one with child, when they fear about themselves or their child, they should break the fast, then fast on other days. And as to the very old man when he cannot bear fasting--Anas, after he became old, fed one who was needy, for a year or two daily with bread and meat, and broke the fast. (B. 65:ii, 25.) 12 Abu-l-Zinâd said, The menstruating woman has to fast afterwards, and she has not to perform any prayer (for the prayers omitted). (B. 30:41 .) 13 Abû Salamah said, I heard 'Â'ishah say, I used to be under obligation to fast on account of (the fasts omitted in) Ramadzân, and I was not able to perform this obligation except in Sha'bân." (B. 30:40 ) 14 Abû 'Ubaid said, I was present at 'Îd with Umar and he said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, forbade fasting on these two days, the ('Îd) day of your breaking the fast and the other ('Îd) day on which you eat of your sacrifices. (B. 30:66 .) [3. Sha'bân is the month preceding Ramadzân.] 15 Abû Hurairah reported, The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: "When one forgets and eats and drinks, he should complete his fast, for Allâh made him eat and drink." (B. 30:26 .) 16 Ibn 'Umar moistened a cloth and cast it over him while he was fasting; and Sha'bî entered a bath while he was fasting. Ibn 'Abbâs said, There is no harm that one should taste of the food in the cooking-pot and anything else. And Hasan said, There is no harm in rinsing the mouth with water, and getting cooled, by one who fasts. (B. 30:25 .) 17 Abû Hurairah said, When a person vomits, he should not break the fast. (B. 30:32 .) 18 'Â'ishah said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, used to confine himself (to the mosque) in the last ten days of Ramadzân, and he would say: "Seek the Lailat al-Qadr in the last ten days of Ramadzân."[4] (B. 32:1 ) 19 'Â'ishah said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, would cause his head to get to me while he was in the mosque, and I would comb his hair; and he did not enter the house when performing i'tikâf except for a need. (B. 33:1 ) [4. Lailat al-Qadr means the grand night or the night of majesty. It is the night on which the revelation of the Holy Qur'ân began (97:1). As stated in other hadîth, it must be particularly sought on the 25th, 27th and 29th of Ramadzân (B. 2 35). Confining oneself to the mosque during the lost ten days of Ramadzân is known as i'tikâf. See next hadîth.]

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1 Sahil Badruddin = ""The third Pillar, the month-long Muslim fast (sawm in Arabic) which takes place during Ramadan, was not firmly instituted as a Muslim ritual until after the emigration to Medina. Considering that the concept of fasting was thoroughly foreign to the Bedouin experience—it would have been absurd to go voluntarily without food or water in a desert climate—there can be no doubt that Muhammad adopted this ritual from Arabia’s Jews"- No god but God, Reza Aslan "
2 Enakshi Ganguly = "Intercourse During Ramadan"
3 Enakshi Ganguly = "Fasting According to Five Islamic Schools of Law"
4 Enakshi Ganguly = ""(He who performs i'tikaf stays away from sins and attains rewards as if he did all good deeds.) [Ibn Maja](Whoever does i'tikaf in a mosque as long as the time that elapses between the two milkings of a camel, he receives rewards as if he freed a slave.) [Tanwir](He who performs i'tikaf for two days in Ramadan receives rewards as if he performed two [voluntary] pilgrimages.) [Bayhaqi](Performing i'tikaf for a day for the sake of Allah keeps a person much farther away from Hell.) [Tabarani, Hakim]"Source: http://www.myreligionislam.com/detail.asp?Aid=5906"