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1. "O men! Eat the lawful and good things out of what is in the earth" (2:168). 2 "And eat and drink and be not immoderate, for He does not love the immoderate" (7:31). 3. "O you who believe! Do not forbid yourselves the good things which Allâh has made lawful for you, and do not exceed the limits" (5:87). 4. "And do not eat of that on which Allâh's name has not been mentioned." (6: 122). 5. "Forbidden to you is that which dies of itself, and blood, and flesh of swine, and that on which any other name than that of Allâh has been invoked, and the strangled animal, and that beaten to death, and that killed by a fall, and that killed by being smitten with the horn, and that which wild beasts have eaten--except what you slaughter--and what is sacrificed on stones set up for idols" (5:3). 6. "Lawful to you is the game of the sea and its food ... and the game of the land is forbidden to you so long as you are on pilgrimage" (5:96). 7. "And the food of those who have been given the Book is lawful for you and your food is lawful for them" (5:5). 8. "It is no sin in you that you eat together or separately (24:61). 9. "O you who believe! Intoxicants and games of chance are only an uncleanness, the devil's work; shun them, therefore, that you may be successful" (5:90). There are some general principles laid down by the Holy Qur'ân regarding food. The first condition is that it should be lawful (halâl) (v. 1), which carries the double significance of being earned lawfully and not being prohibited by Law. The second is that it should be good (tayyih) (v. 1) or fit for eating, not unclean or such as offends the taste. It is further stated that the golden rule regarding what one eats and drinks is moderation (v. 2). As underfeeding affects the build-up of man, so does also the overloading of the stomach. Moderation also requires that no food should be used to excess. Self-denying practices by which a man deprives himself of certain kinds of food are expressly denounced (v. 3). Flesh is allowed if the animal is slaughtered in the name of Allâh (v. 4). Prohibited foods are detailed in v. 5. Game of land and sea is allowed with one exception (v. 6), Inter-dining with non-Muslims is allowed (v. 7). One may eat in the company of others or separately (v. 8), Intoxicants are prohibited (v. 9). Further details are laid down in Hadîth. The name of Allâh must be mentioned when an animal is slaughtered (h. 1). It may be slaughtered with any sharp instrument which makes the blood flow (h. 2), Slaughtering consists in cutting the jugular vein of the throat, but the spinal cord must not be cut (hh. 3, 4). An afflicted animal may be slaughtered (h. 5). An animal properly slaughtered by a non-Muslim is allowed (h. 6). In a doubtful case the utterance of Allâh's name is sufficient (h. 7). Game is allowed subject to certain conditions (hh. 8, 9). Beasts of prey with teeth are prohibited (h. 10). Intoxicants are prohibited (hh. 11, 12), and they cannot be taken even in small quantities which may not intoxicate (h. 13). The hands must be washed before taking meals and again after it, when the mouth must also be rinsed (h. 14, 15). The utterance of Bismillâh when taking food and a short prayer after it was the Holy Prophet's practice (hh. 16, 17). Drink and food must not be blown into and must be kept covered (hh. 18-20). In eating, one may help oneself with a knife (h. 21), or a spoon. Vessels of gold and silver are a luxury which Islâm does not allow (h. 22). When a person is invited to a meal he should not refuse; nor should one go to a feast to which one has not been invited (h. 23). A servant may eat at the same table with his master (h. 24). Eating together is recommended (h. 25); but when doing so, one should have regard for others (hh. 26, 27). The guest must be accompanied to the door of the house (h. 28). 1 Anas said, The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, sacrificed two rams of a white colour mixed with black; I saw him with his foot placed on one side of their face, uttering Bismillâh, Allâh-u-Akbar, and he slaughtered them with his own hand.[1] (B. 73:9.) [1. The concluding portion of this hadîth relates the exact words that must be uttered when an animal is slaughtered. The condition that Allâh's name must {footnote } be mentioned over the slaughtered animal is laid down to make man realize that the taking of a life, even though it be an animal, is a serious matter, and that it is by Divine permission that man does it, not by his superior might. If a man forgets to mention the name of Allâh, the meat is still allowed (B. 72:15).] 2 Râfi' said, We were with the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, in Dhu-l-Hulaifah. . . . . . So Râfi said, We expect or we fear the enemy tomorrow and we have no knives; may we slaughter with (the thin edge of) cane? He (the Prophet) said: "What makes the blood flow, not the teeth and the nail, and the name of Allâh is mentioned on it, eat it."[2] (B. 47:1) 3 Nâfi' said, Ibn 'Umar forbade (the cutting of) the spinal cord, saying, Cut what is above the bone, then leave (it) until it dies. (B. 72:24) [2. This hadîth shows that an animal may be slaughtered with any sharp instrument that makes the blood flow out. The object is that blood which contains poisons should not form part of human food.] 4 Ibn Abbâs said, Slaughtering is in the throat and in the pit above the breast between the collar bones.[3] (B. 72:24.) 5 Mu'âdh ibn Sa'd reported, A slave girl of Ka'b ibn Mâlik was pasturing sheep in Sal', and one of the goats was afflicted, so she caught hold of it and slaughtered it with a stone. The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, was asked about it, and he said, "Eat it." (B. 72:19.) 6 Zuhrî said, There is no harm in (eating) an animal slaughtered by a Christian of Arabia; if thou hearest [3. There are two ways of slaughtering; dhabh in which the throat is cut from beneath at the part next to the head. while the animal is made to lie down under one's foot, and nahr, in which the animal is stabbed, while in a standing posture, in the nahr (the place where the wind-pipe commences in the uppermost part of the breast). The latter practice is resorted to in the case of bigger animals. such as camels and cows, on account of the difficulty of making them lie down. But an animal that may be stabbed may also be slaughtered. In both cases, it is a necessary condition that the spinal cord is not cut. If, however. the head is cut off by mistake, it does not make the meat unlawful (B. 72:24).] him invoking another name than that of Allâh, do not eat it, and if thou dost not hear him, Allâh has made it lawful, and He knew their unbelief.[6] (B. 72:22.) 7 'Â'ishah said, Some people said to the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, People[5] bring to us meat about which we do not know whether the name of Allâh was mentioned over it or not. He said, "Mention the name of Allâh over it and eat it." She said, and they had just emerged from unbelief. (B. 72:21) [4. The view expressed here by Zuhrî is supported by Ibn 'Abbâs (Ah, I, 302), who explains the word food in 5:5--The food of those who have been given the Book is lawful for you--"as meaning the animal slaughtered by them. Only if it is known for certain that a name other than that of Allâh has been invoked, would it be unlawful. 5. These people, as 'Â'ishah explains, were recent converts to Islâm, and therefore it was doubtful whether they observed the details of the Law.] 8 Abû Th'labah said, I said, O Prophet of Allâh! We live in the land of the followers of the Book; may we eat in their vessels? And (we live) in a land where there is game,--I hunt with my bow and with my dog which is untaught and with my dog that has been taught, so what is right for me? He said: "As to what thou askest about the followers of the Book, if you can find (vessels) other than these, do not eat in them; and if you do not find (other vessels), wash them and eat in them." And what thou huntest with thy bow, and thou hast mentioned the name of Allâh, eat (it)[7]; [6. Washing was required because they were also used for prohibited foods. 7. The same rule would apply to game shot with a gun. The Bismillâh should be uttered at the time of loading the gun or when firing it. If a Muslim {footnote } forgets to mention the name of Allâh, the same rule would apply as in slaughtering. i.e., the game is allowed as food.] and what thou huntest with the dog that thou hast taught, and thou hast mentioned the name of Allâh, eat (it); and what thou huntest with thy untaught dog and thou art able to slaughter it, eat it." (B. 72:4.) 9 'Umar said, 'The game of the sea is that which has been hunted, and its food (ta'âm) is that which it casts forth . . . . . . . . And Ibn 'Abbâs said, Eat of the game of the sea whether it is (killed) by a Christian or a Jew or a Magian.[6] (B. 72:12.) 10 Abû Tha'labah said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, forbade all beasts of prey with canine teeth.[9] (B. 72:29.) [8. The reference here is to v. 6 quoted above. The ta'âm (lit. food ) of the sea is distinguished from its game, and means what is found, the sea having thrown it on dry land, or what is left by the water having receded from it, for the catching of which no struggle is needed. Fish, even it caught alive, is not required to be slaughtered. Eel, frog or tortoise may be eaten, according to some. 9. Muslim adds, birds of prey with claw 19:2).] 11 Anas said, I was giving drink to people in the abode of Abu Talhah, and their wine at that time was made of dates. Then the Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, ordered a crier to make it known that wine was forbidden. He said. So Abu Talhah said to me, Get out and pour it out. I poured it out, and it flowed in the streets of Madînah.[10] (B. 46:21.) 12 'Â'ishah said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, was asked about bit'--it is a [10. The Arabic word for wine is khamr, from khamara meaning he covered or veiled a thing; and wine is so called because it veils (obscures) the intellect (LL). It is not only the expressed juice of grapes when it has fermented but the intoxicating expressed juice of anything (LL). In Arabia, at that time, wine was generally made of grapes, dates, wheat, barley and honey (B. 74: 4). Fresh juice of grapes or dates is not prohibited (B. 67:72).] drink made of honey and the people of Yaman used to drink it. So the Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: "Every drink that intoxicates is prohibited."[11] (B. 74:1) 13 Jâbir said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: "Of whatever thing a large quantity intoxicates, even a small quantity is prohibited."[12] (AD. 25:5.) 14 Salmân reported, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said "The blessing of food is the washing of hands before it, and the washing of hands after it."[13] (Tr-Msh. 20.) [11. Everything which intoxicates is prohibited, whether it is a drink or any other drug cannot, therefore, be used even in small quantities 12. An intoxicant unless, of course, it is used as a medicine to save life, for which purpose the Holy Qur'ân expressly allows the use of prohibited foods: "Whoever is driven to necessity, not desiring nor exceeding the limit, no sin shall be upon him" (2:173, 6:146). 13. The word used here is wudzû', but it means only the washing of hands.] 15 Suwaid Ibn al-Nu'mân said: We went forth with the Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, to Khaibar. When we reached Sahbâ', he ordered the food to be served; and there was brought to him nothing but meal of parched barley, and we ate (of it); then he got up for the prayer and he rinsed his mouth and we rinsed our mouths.[14] (B. 70:51.) 16 'Umar ibn Abû Salamah said, I was a boy being brought up in the care of the Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, and my hand was active in the bowl, taking from every side. So the Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said to me, "Boy! Say Bismillâh and eat with thy [14. Rinsing of the mouth after taking food is necessary, so that particles of food may not be left in the mouth to rot.] right hand and cat from the side nearest to thee." So this was my manner of eating afterwards. (B. 70:2.) 17 Abû Sa'îd al-Khudrî said, When the Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, finished his meal, he used to say: "All praise is due to Allâh Who has given us to eat and to drink, and male us Muslims."[15] (Tr-2 Msh. 20.) 18 Abû Qatâdah said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: "When one of you drinks, he should not blow into the vessel."[16] (B. 4:18.) [15. A Muslim is taught to start food with the mention of the name of Allâh, and to give thanks to God after having finished it. He thus feels the Divine presence when satisfying his physical desires. 16. The words of another hadîth (Ah, I. 309) are that the Holy Prophet forbade blowing on food and drink.] 19 Jâbir said, Abû Humaid brought a cup of milk from Naqî', and the Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said to him: "Why didst thou not cover it? Thou shouldst have placed a piece of wood on it." (B. 74:11.) 20 Jâbir reported, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: "When you go to sleep, put out the lamp and shut the doors and cover the mouths of water-skins and cover food and drink." (B. 74:21.) 21 Ja'far ibn Amr reported, His father informed him that he saw the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, cutting (meat) from the shoulder of a goat. Then he was invited to prayer, so he threw away the knife and said prayers and did not perform ablutions."[17] (B. 4:51.) 22 Hudhaifah said, I heard the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, say: "Do not wear silk or silk brocade, and do not drink in vessels of gold and silver, and do not eat in bowls made of them; for they are for them in this life and for us in the next."[18] (B. 70:29) 23 'Abd Allâh ibn 'Umar said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: "When a person is invited (to a [17. It is not forbidden to help oneself in eating with a spoon or a fork, as the Holy Prophet helped himself with a knife in this case. 18. These are luxuries which can be enjoyed by the rich at the expense of the poor; hence they are forbidden to a Muslim.] meal) and he does not accept (or reply), he disobeys Allâh and His Messenger; and he who goes (to a feast) without being invited enters as a thief and goes forth as a raider." (AD. 26:l.) 24 Abû Hurairah reported on the authority of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him: "When the servant brings to one of you his food, then if he does not make him sit with him (to eat at the same table), let him give him a morsel or two morsels, for he has laboured to prepare it."[19] (B. 49:18.) 25 'Umar said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: "Eat together and do not eat separately, for the blessing is with the company"[20] (IM-Msh. 20:l.) [19. To make the servant sit at the same table with his master shows the extent to which the Islamic brotherhood minimizes differences of rank and wealth. 20. Islâm thus requires even the people of a household to take their food together.] 26 Ja'far ibn Muhammad reported on the authority of his father, When the Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, ate in the company of (other) people, he was the last of them (to finish) eating.[21] (Msh. 20:1.) 27 Ibn 'Umar said, The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: "When food is placed (before a company), no one should get up until the food is removed; nor should any one raise up his hand (from the food), though he may have satisfied his hunger, until the people have finished--and he should offer an excuse--for this causes his companion to become ashamed, so he withholds his hand though he may still need food." (IM-Msh. 20:1.) [21. This hadîth and the one that follows relate to good manners in eating. {footnote }The man who eats less than his companion should eat slowly, so that he finishes along with his companions.] Abû Hurairah said, 28 The Messenger of Allâh, peace and blessings of Allâh be on him, said: "It is the sunnah that a man should accompany his guest to the door of the house." (IM-Msh. 20:l.)

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1 Sahil Badruddin = ""The third Pillar, the month-long Muslim fast (sawm in Arabic) which takes place during Ramadan, was not firmly instituted as a Muslim ritual until after the emigration to Medina. Considering that the concept of fasting was thoroughly foreign to the Bedouin experience—it would have been absurd to go voluntarily without food or water in a desert climate—there can be no doubt that Muhammad adopted this ritual from Arabia’s Jews. The Quran admits as much when it states “Fasting is prescribed for you, just as it was prescribed for those before you” (2:183; emphasis added). And al-Tabari notes that the first Muslim fast coincided with Yom Kippur; Muhammad specifically ordered his followers to fast with the Jews in commemoration of their flight from Egypt. Only later was the fast changed to Ramadan, the month in which Muslims believe the Quran was first revealed to Muhammad."-No god but God, Reza Aslan "
2 Enakshi Ganguly = ""The Prophet Muhammad also instructed his companions to avoid any intoxicating substances (paraphrased), “if it intoxicates in a large amount, it is forbidden even in a small amount.” For this reason, most observant Muslims avoid alcohol in any form, even small amounts that are sometimes used in cooking."Source: http://www.greenprophet.com/2011/11/muslims-alcohol-haraam/#sthash.jtJvItu5.dpuf"