Tapati (tä´păti), sun maiden, story of king's love for, 71 et seq. Taraka (tä´răkä), the hag, slain by Rama, 380. Tarku, Hittite "hammer god", 3; Shiva compared with, 146. Teachers, Brahmans as, 82. Tears, the creative, Prajapati sheds, 100, 101. Tel-el-Amarna letters, Aryans and, xxx. Terra mater, the Indian, 13. Teutonic and Celtic treatment of boar, 136. Teutonic beliefs regarding soul and world's ages, xliv. Teutonic modes of thought, xliv n; compared with those of Vedic period, xlv. Teutonic mythology, doctrine of transmigration absent from, 103. Teutonic wonder smith, like Indian, 11, 12. Teutons, Aryan affinities of, xx; traditions of migrations of; xlv. Thor, Indra and, xxxi, 3; elfin artisans and, 11; like Indra, son of Earth Mother, 13; the "friend of man", 15, 16; a slayer of giants like Indra, 64; Arjuna compared with, 257 n. Thorns of Hades, 326. Thothmes III (thoth´mes), Egyptian king, Mitanni Aryans and, xxx. Thunder- "ball", "bolt", and "stone", 2. Thunder gods. See Hammer Gods, also Baler, Finn mac Coul, Hrungner, Indra, Jupiter, P’an Ku, Ptah, Rammen, Rimmon, Shiva, Tarku, Thor, Zeus. Thunder horn, Arjuna receives from Indra, 258; Finn mac Coul has, 258 n. Tiamat. See Tiawath. Tiawath of Babylonian myth, 9, 90. Tiger, Damayanti's appeal to the, 347. Tigers, demons with heads of, 71; Bharata as tamer of, 161. Titans, the Indian, 64. See Danavas. Tortoise incarnation of Vishnu, 143. Torture, in Hades, 326. Tournament, the, 185 et seq. "Towers of Silence", Parsees expose dead on, xxxiii. Trade, in Vedic period, 78; Solomon and Indian products, 84. Traders, caste of, 79. See Caste. Transmigration of souls, "germs of theory", xliii, 116; racial aspect of doctrine, xliv, 116; in Egyptian, Celtic, and Greek religions, 103, 118; the Irish Tuan Mac Carell legend, 111 et seq.; a Post-Vedic doctrine in India, 103; becomes orthodox, 115; present-day beliefs, 117, 118; in Buddhism, 130 et seq.; Yudhishthira on, 254. Treasure, god of (see Kuvera); Yakshas guard the hidden, 68. Tree, of Paradise, 41; of Brahma, 102; of religion, of passion, 156. Trees, the "blood of", 37; horses tied to at sacrifices, 93. Trétä Yuga, length of, 104; the Yellow Age, 108, 109; in Greek and Celtic mythologies, 109 et seq.; Vishnu slays Bali in, 123. Tribes. See Bharatas, Gandari, Kasis, Kosalas, Kurus, Panchalas, Purus, Videhas, &c. Tri´gärtis, Rajah of, attack on Virata, 267; Pandavas defeat, 268. Trinity, Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva, 119, 124. Trinity of goddesses, Saraswati (white), Lakshmi (red), Par´vati (black), 150, 151. Tritsus (tree´tsus), as an Aryan tribe, 154; identified with the Vasishthas, 154, 155; priestly aristocracy of, 155. Trumpet of thunder god, 70. Turkestan, fair type in, xxix. Turki, a blend of Alpine and Northern stocks, xxix. Turkish language, xix. Twashtri (twăsh´tre), the divine artisan; shapes Indra's "thunderstone", 4; in hymn of victory, 6; makes Indra's hammer from Rishi's bones, 8; father of Saranyu and grandsire of Ribhus, 11; gives origin to human life, 11; Ribhus as rivals of, 11, 12; Agni an incarnation of, 20; as father of the sun god, 32; as maker of heavens, 57-59. Twin, Yama signifies, 40. Twin deities. See Mitra and Varuna, Yama and Yami, Yima and Yimeh, Indra and Agni, Nasatya, the Aswins, Dioskouri, Castor and Pollux. Tȳphōn, the Indian, 65. Typhoon, the, Hanuman the ape god as, 106. Ugrians, a blend of Alpine and Northern stocks, xxix. Ulúpí, the serpent nymph, Arjuna loved by and birth of Iravat, 226; son of in great war, 286 et seq.; fall of, 293; Arjuna restored to life, 314, 315. Umä, goddess of wisdom, bride of Shiva, 150. Universal destruction, at end of "day" of Brahma, 113. Universal self, Brahma the, 98. See World Soul. Universities, the ancient, forest hermitages were, 82. Upănishăds, xl; transmigration belief in, xliii, 117; evidence regarding Asura problem in, 62, 63 et seq., 88; horse sacrifice doctrines in, 93 et seq.; the fruit-tree lesson of, 99; fundamental thought of doctrine of, 100; influence of, 102, 103; Hinduism based on, 120; Vedic gods and, 121; bold Pantheism of, 122; Jainism and, 133; present-day Hindu esteem of, 139; composed in the "middle country", 155. Uranus, slain like Dyaus, 13. Urvasa (ur´väsă), the Apsara, woos and curses Arjuna, 256. Ushäs, goddess of dawn, 34, 148; Saranyu developed from, 149. Uttar (oot´ăr), son of Rajah of Virata, 268. Uttărä, Princess of Virata, married to Abhimanyu, 269. Ütü, Sumerian sun god, Mitra as, 29. Väch, the "mother of the Vedas", Saraswati as, 149. Vadhar, the weather, Vritra as, 8 n. Váhuka (vä´hukă), the charioteer, Nala as, 355 et seq. Vaishnava (vaish´năvă) faith. See Vishnu. Vaisya caste, 79. See Caste. Vaisyas (vais´yăs), the yellow, xxv. Vaka (vä´kă), the Asura king, slain by Bhima, 207 et seq. Vala (vä´lă), the demon, cloud cows in cave of, 68. Valhal, xliv; Indra's heaven like, 59; pork eaten in, 136. Valmiki (väl´meek-e), the poet, how sloka metre was invented by, 374; composes Rámáyana, 375; Sita takes refuge with, 426. Vamadeva (vä´mă-day-vă), family priest, 375. Vamana (väm´ănă), dwarf form of Vishnu, 123. Vanars (vä´nărs) (apes), Rama secures as allies, 410 et seq. See Apes. Varáha (văr-ä´hă), boar incarnation of Vishnu, 135. Varanavartha (văr´ăn-ă-vărt″hă), Pandavas exiled to, 199 et seq. Vărnă. See Caste. Vartikas (vär´tikăs), "of one wing, one eye, one leg", 68; the rational theory, 71. Vărună, in Vedic Age, xxxi; in Asia Minor, xxxii; his Hebraic grandeur, 26; the Omniscient One, worshipped with devotion, 27; Mitra and, 28; dethroned by Indra, 28; protector of hearth and home, 29; in early group of deities, 30; in "sea of heaven", and as god of ocean, 31; a god of Mitanni, 32; Surya as "the eye" of, 33; "house of clay" (the grave) in hymn to, 38; in "Land of the Fathers" (Paradise), 41; Babylonian aspect of, 41; the heaven of, 58; Adityas his attendants, 58 n; worshipped by demons and giants, 59; as an Asura, 61; early title "wise Azura and King", 62; god of the overlords of Assyria, 62; giants and demons controlled by, 65; Vishnu and, 123; as suitor of Damayantí, 332 et seq. Văsish´thă, as rival of Vishwamitra, 154 et seq.; Vasus cursed by, 164; in the Rámáyana, 375, 378. Vasishthas, a family of priests, 154; identical with the Tritsus, 154, 155; priestly aristocracy of, 155. Vasudeva (vä´soodevă), father of Krishna, 128; brother of Queen Pritha, 173; at Pandava imperial sacrifice, 232 et seq., 323. Vasuka. See Vasuki. Vasuki (vä´suke), Naga serpent demi-god, 65; as the "churning rope", 143; King of Nagas, welcomes Bhima in underworld, 178; gives Bhima the draught of strength; 179; jewel of restores Arjuna to life, 314, 315. Vasus (vä´sus), attendants of Indra, 17; as children of Ganga and King Shantanu, 164 et seq.; Bhishma among in Paradise, 327. Vä´ta. See Vayu. Vate (va´te), the Teutonic, compared with Vata (Vayu), 24. Vä´yu, wind god, compared with Odin, 24; hymns to, 25; in rival group of deities, 32; Bhima, son of, 105, 176; Hanuman, ape god son of, 106, 411; sends Garuda to help Rama, 419. Vedas (vay´dăs), geographical evidence of, xx; Indra hymns, 6, 7; creation myth in, 10; goddesses vague in, 13; gods of in Buddhistic Age, 120; still regarded sacred, 139; father Manu in, 140; the "mother" of the, 149; Vyasa as arrayer of; 154. Veddas of Ceylon, xxvi. Vedic Age, the, length of, xxx; the "Great Mother" in, xxxi; burial customs of, xxxii; eclipse of gods of, xl; Teutonic modes of thought in, xlv; the change in post Vedic times, xlv; glimpses of life of in epics, xlvi; gods are Asuras in early and Suras in late, 61; folk movements in, 76; dice and drinking in, 77; trade and culture in, 78; doctrines of transmigration and world's ages unknown in, 104; one of four ages, 119; goddesses vague in, 148. Vedic Aryans, "father right" recognized by, xxx. Vedic hymns, 15, 16; majority of addressed to Indra and Agni, 19; Brahmanas and Upanishads and, 62, 63 et seq.; materialism of, 82. Videha (ve´day-hă), Eastern Aryan kingdom, xxxix. Vidura (ve-dür´ă), son of Vyasa, 172; assists Drona to prepare for tournament, 183, 184; at the tournament with blind king, 185 et seq.; ambassador to Pandavas after marriage, 223, 224; at the gambling match, 240 et seq.; attitude of during negotiations, 276; retires to forest, 319. Villages, life in during Vedic Age, 78. Vind´hyä mountain, ape god assumes proportions of, 109. Viräj, female form of Purusha, Saraswati as, 149. Virata (vir-ăt´ä), Pandavas' sojourn in, 266 et seq.; Pandava allies meet at, 270, 273; warlike preparations, 273; rajah of slain by Drona, 301. Virchow, view on Aryan problem, xxiii. Vishnu (vish´noo), in Brahmanical revival age, xl; Vedic god of grace, assists Indra, world artisan, 10; the Preserver in the Trinity, 119; the cult of, 122; evidence of Greek ambassador, Megasthenes, regarding, 122; a god of grace in Rigveda, 122, 123; Brahma springs from in lotus bloom, 124; sleep of on World Serpent, 124; Avataras of, 125; the Buddha Avatara of, 129; Puranas and cult of, 134; as Brahma, 134; demons secure salvation through, 135; his lion incarnation, 135; his boar incarnation, 135, 136; Parasu-rama (Rama with the axe) incarnation of, 136; belief in the coming of on white horse (Kalki), 137; Bhagavad-gita and cult of, 139; in epic narratives, 139; Manu and, 140; in "churning of the ocean" myth, 143 et seq.; white steed of, gem of, and wife of rise from Sea of Milk, 144 Garuda the vehicle of, 146; in form of Shiva, 147; discus of made by goddess, 149; in Ganesa myth, 151; in myth regarding origin of goddesses, 151; father of the love god, 151; Ganges flows from toe of, 152; wife of as daughter of Daksha, the rishi, 154; incarnation of slays incarnation of Shiva, 234 n; at Dasaratha's horse sacrifice, 376, 377; Indra's appeal to, 377; Dasaratha's sons as incarnations of, 377; Rama as, 427. See Krishna and Rama. Vishwakarman (vish´wă-kăr″män), the divine artisan, Twashtri is, 58. Vishwamitra (vish´wä-meet″ră), as rival of Vasishtha, 154; raised from Kshatriya to Brahman caste, 154; as father of Shakuntala, 159; Indra's dread of and temptation of, 159, 160; takes away Rama and Lakshmana to destroy demons, 379, 380, 381; breaking of Shiva's bow, 382, 383. Vital spark, cause of life and bodily heat, 37; Agni symbolizes, 19. Vivahvant, the Persian, 40. Vivăsvănt, the sky god, 40. Vivăsvăt, as a sun god, 32. See Vivasvant. Volund, 24. Vows, by spitting and before fires, 37. Vritra (vrit´rä), the drought demon, slain by Indra, 6, 7; as leader of Danavas, 7; reference to myth of in Brahmanas, 63; "the encompasser", 66; captures cloud cows, 4 et seq., 67; rational explanation of, 71. Vulcan, the Hindu, Twashtri as, 11. Vultures, as protectors of the fairy babe, Shakuntala, 159, 160; king of, see Jatayus. Vyasa (vyäs´ă), reputed Vedic compiler and author of Mahábhárata, 154; identified with the legendary Vasishtha, 154; son of Parashara and Satyavati, 167; father of Dhritarashtra, Pandu, and Vidura, 171, 172; meets Pandavas during first exile, 206; reveals why Draupadi must be joint wife of Pandavas, 222; advises Arjuna to visit Shiva, 255; gifts divine vision to Sanjaya, 287; advises horse sacrifice as atonement after war, 312; at horse sacrifice, 316; causes dead to return, 320, 321. Wales, hatred of pork in, 136. Wallis, Cosmology of Rigveda, 10 n, 11 n. War of gods and giants, 70. See Giants and Asuras. Warriors, possessed by spirits, 85; caste of, 79. See Caste. War-shell, Arjuna's a thunder horn, 258. Water of life, soma the, 36; moon as source of, 37; creative tears as, 100, 101. Water spirits, givers of boons, 148. Waters, the primordial, in creation myths, 100, 101 et seq.; universe returns to, 105, 141, 142; "home" of the creator, 114; in the boar myth, 136. "Watling Street", 24. Wealth and culture, 82. Weapons, the early Vedic, 77. Weather, Indian demon of, 8 n. Weeping of the creator, 100. Well worship, 37. Wells, the sources of luck, 148. "Westerners", Indian tribes called, xxxix. White Age, the Krita Yuga, 108; in Greek and Celtic mythologies, 109 et seq. Widows, drown themselves after return of dead warriors, 321; burning of, see Suttee. Wiedemann, Professor, 11 n. Wieland (we´land), 24. Wife, the ideal, goddess Sati as, 150. Wife hunters, 60. Wife of Amon, 366. "Wild Huntsman", the Indian, 26. Williams, Sir M. Monier, 40, 40 n, 41, 42, 42 n. Wilson, Vedic hymns, 13, 16, 105 n. Winckler, Professor Hugo, reading of Indra inscription, xxxi. Wind, as "air of life", 37. Wind god, Bhima and Hanuman sons of, 106. See Vayu. Winter burial customs among Buriats, xxxiv. Wisdom, goddess of, Uma as, 150. Wives, burning of as punishment in Egypt and Scotland, xxxvii; marriage by capture of, 60. Wolves, Rakshasas ride in battle, 419. Wonder smiths, Teutonic myth of and Indian, 11, 12. Works and Days, Hesiod's doctrine of world's ages in, 109 et seq. World's ages, doctrine of the, post-Vedic conception of, 103; Greek evidence regarding Indian doctrine, 122; not in Teutonic mythology, 103; Tuan Mac Carell Irish legend, 111 et seq.; the "day" and "night" of Brahma, 105; the four Yugas, 104; the "white", "red", "yellow", and "black" in India, 108; Hanuman's account of to Bhima, 107, 108, 109; Markandeya's account of, 112 et seq.; Narayana's account of, 115; Narayana at dawn of each Yuga, 124; Manu's association with Brahma, 140. See Ages of the Universe. World giant. See Purusha and Ptah. World guardians, the four gods in Nala story, 332. World horse, myth of, 94 et seq. World house of Vedic myth, 10. World mother, Lakshmi as, 149. World Serpent, Karoktáka as, 65; Vishnu sleeps on, 124; Balarama an incarnation of, 128; issues from his mouth, 323. World Soul, hermits and Yoga, 82; pantheistic conception of, 88; in Purusha myth, 95; in Rigveda hymn, 97, 98; the "subtile essence" is the Self, 99; the soul's being, 99, 100; Brahma, the divine incarnation of, 100; colours of in various Yugas (ages), 108, 109; Greek and Celtic conceptions, 110 et seq.; men's souls merged in, 118; Vishnu and Shiva incarnations of, 122; Buddha's teaching regarding, 130 et seq. World tree, in Indra creation myth, 102; as Brahma's, 102. Worlds, the three, 65. Xerxes, Gandarians who fought with against the Greeks, 168 n. Yädăvăs, Krishna prince of, 215; end of power of, 323. Yajurveda (yä-joor´vedă), exposure of female children in, 60; the civilization of, 84; the schools of thought in period of, 88; Vishnu in, 123; Mahadeva in, 146. Yakshas (yăk´shăs), "the good people", 68; invisible sentinels, 106; none in world's first age, 107; changes sex with princess, 171; Kuvera king of, 258; Dharma as one of the unseen, 264, 265. Yama (yă´mă), god of the dead, as the "first man", xxxii; in Nala story, 31; burial customs, 38; discoverer of "the path of the fathers", 39, 40; his sister Yami and Persian parallel, 40; in "land of the fathers" (Paradise) with Varuna, 41; Babylonian aspect of, 41; as Judge, Lord, Finisher, Leveller, &c., 42; as instrument of destiny, 42 et seq.; in story of Ruru, 43, 44; in story of Savitri, 44; concessions won from, 50 et seq.; the heaven of described, 57; parents only admitted to heaven of, 59; journey of to "land of fathers", 116; vision of in Dwaraka, 322; as suitor of Damayantí, 332 et seq. Yămí, sister of Yama, 40; Babylonian aspect of, 41; Yăvănăs, the, allies of Kauravas, 287; identified with Greeks, 287 n. Years, the Divine, length of, 104, 105. See World's ages. Yellow age, the Dwãpara Yuga, 108, 109; in Greek mythology, 109, 110; in Celtic mythology, 110 et seq. Yima, the Persian Yama, 40. Yimeh, the Persian Yami, 40. Ymer, the Teutonic chaos giant, Purusha like, 90. Yōgă, religious state called, 82. Yorkshire, burial rites in, xxxvii. Yudhishthira (yoo-dish´thi-ră), xlviii; son of Queen Pritha and god Dharma, 176; at the tournament, 185 et seq.; made "Little Rajah", 197; Duryodhana causes exile of, 198, 199; the "house of lac", 200; escape of with brothers and mother, 201; Arjuna offers Draupadi to, 220; regrets Arjuna's exile, 225; imperial sacrifice held by, 228 et seq.; Surya's gift to in exile, 249; unfolds his faith to Draupadi, 252 et seq.; his sense of honour, 255; Kuvera's advice to, 258; generosity towards Duryodhana, 260; refuses Duryodhana's invitation, 261; Jayadratha attempts to carry off Draupadi, 262, 263; rescues his brothers from temporary death, 263 et seq.; Dharma's questions, 264 et seq.; in Virata, 266 et seq.; at meeting of Pandavas allies at Virata, 270 et seq.; negotiations with Kauravas, 274 et seq.; in the great war, 285; secures a Kaurava prince as ally, 287; flight of from battlefield, 297; smites Bhima, 307; sorrows for slain children, 310; the great jewel, 311; proclaimed rajah at Hastinapur, 312; horse sacrifice rites performed, 312 et seq.; beholds return of the dead, 320, 321; divides his kingdom, 323; departure of to Indra's heaven, 324; tested and approved, 324-326. Yugă, meaning of terms changes, xliv; meaning of in Rigveda, 104. Yugas, the, colours of, 108, 109; in Greek and Celtic mythologies, 109 et seq.; Markandeya lives through the various, 112 et seq.; Manu's association with Brahma, 140. See World's ages. Yüyüt´sü, Kaurava prince, joins the Pandava army, 287; made rajah, 323. Zend an Aryan language, xix. Zeus pater, 3; Dyaus-pita in India, 12; parent of twin deities, 32; serpent enemy of, 65; in world's ages doctrine, 110. Zoroastrian chief god. See Ahura-Mazda.