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The system of transliteration used in this volume for rendering Arabic and Persian words in Latin letters closely follows standard modern international practise. The sounds thus represented may be approximated as follows in standard English: Vowels Short "a": between the vowel sounds of "hat" and "fur." Long "a": (ā): like the a in "hard." Short "i": as in English "pit." Long "i" (ī): like the vowel sound in "feet." Short "u": as in "hook," or "put." Long "u": (û): as in "clue," or the vowel sound in "food." Consonants Glottal stop, or hamza, represented by (’): can be found in between two English words ending and beginning with vowels, as: "Iowa apples," or where the "t’s" should be in "bottle," as it is pronounced by many New Yorkers. ‘ayn, represented by (‘): a sort of twang of the vocal cords preceding or following another letter. (q), the Arabic qāf: made by a "k" far back in the throat, at the uvula. (ḥ), Arabic ḥā’: a strongly aspirant "h", made in the throat area above the windpipe. (ṡ) (ẓ) (ṭ) (ḍ): each is made by darkening the sound of the corresponding undotted letter. When these dotted consonants are made, the tongue should lie flat and broad in the mouth, behind the lower front teeth. The consonant sound will also slightly alter the quality of any vowel which immediately precedes or follows it. (gh), Arabic ghayn: it is made by a sort of dry gargling like the Parisian (r). (kh), Arabic khā’: much like German "ch" in "nicht" or "Nacht," or the Greek chi.

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1 Sahil Badruddin = ""The fundamental belief in Islam is that in both speech and form, the Quran is incomparable to any other religious or secular writing the world has seen. Muhammad himself often challenged the pagan poets of his time to match the splendor of the Quran, saying, “If you are in doubt of what we have revealed . . . then bring [a verse] like it. But if you cannot—and indeed you cannot—then guard yourself against the Fire, whose fuel is men and stones” (2:23–4; also 16:101)."-No god but God, Reza Aslan"