If a monk should eat forbidden food which a pious (layman) has prepared for some guest, and which food has been mixed up with even thousand (times more pure food) 1, he would be neither monk nor layman. (1) Sramanas who do not comprehend this and do not know what is dangerous, who care for the pleasures of the moment only, will suffer death an endless number of times, like big 2 fishes who when the water rises are by the water (deposited) on dry land and are killed (there), poor things, by hungry dhaṅkas and herons. (2-4) We hear also of another error of some (philosophers): some say that the world has been created (or is governed) 3 by the gods, others, by Brahman. (5) Some 4 say that it has been created by the Îsvara, others that it was produced from chaos, &c.;, this world with living beings and lifeless things, with its variety of pleasure and pain. (6) The great Rishi 5 said, that the world has been created by Svayambhû; Mâra originated Mâyâ, therefore the world (appears to be) uneternal. (7) Some Brâhmanas and Sramanas say that the universe was produced from the (primeval) egg, and He (Brahman) created the things. These ignorant men speak untruth. (8) Those who on arguments of their own maintain that the world has been created, do not know the truth. Nor will (the world) ever perish. (9) Know that misery arises from wicked deeds 1. How can those who do not know the origin (of misery) know its prevention? (10) Some say that the soul (of him who is) pure will become free from bad Karman (on reaching beatitude), but that in that state it will again become defiled through pleasant excitement or hate. (11) (According to them 2) he who has lived on earth as a restrained monk, will afterwards become free from Karman. As clear water which was free from defilement becomes again defiled, so (will be the soul). (12) A wise man should consider that these (heretics) do not lead a life of chastity, and that all these disputants proclaim their own creed in opposition (to the others). (13) (Others 3 maintain that) perfection can only be reached by their method of religious life, not otherwise; and that even before (that time) they have their senses under control and possess everything to be wished for 1. (14) Some say that they will be perfected and sound. On the head of Perfection some men are infatuated with their own doctrines. (15) But these uncontrolled (men) will whirl round in the beginningless (Circle of Births); after a Kalpa they will rise from their sphere to become the lowest of Asuras 2. (16) Thus I say. FOOTNOTES 244:1 This might also be translated: 'though the food passes through the hands of a thousand men before he accepts it.' 244:2 Vêsâliya = vaisâlika. The commentators offer three explanations of this word, (1) marine, visâlah samudras tatrabhavâh; (2) belonging to the genus called visâla; (3) big, visâla. 244:3 Dêvauttê. This is either dêvair uptah, sown, i.e. produced by the gods, or dêvair guptah, governed by the gods. 244:4 The adherents of the Yôga and Sâṅkhya philosophy, or the theistical and atheistical followers of the latter, are apparently meant by 'some' and 'others.' 244:5 The commentators unfortunately have not preserved the name of the great Rishi; they identify Svayambhû with Vishnu 'or some one else.' This Svayambhû, afraid that the earth should become overcrowded, called to help Yama, alias Mâra, who with the help of Mâyâ makes the creatures appear to die. 245:1 It is not given us by any of the above-mentioned agents whom the opponents believe to have created the world. 245:2 According to Sîlâṅka the followers of Gôsâla and the Trairâsikas are meant. The latter are the Gaina followers of the Vaisêshika philosophy. The Trairâsika Sâkhâ was founded by Khaluka Rôhagupta, see part i, . The name Trairâsika is said to have been given to these philosophers because they admit a third state besides those of the bound and of the liberated. 245:3 According to Sîlâṅka the Saivas and Ekadandins are meant. 246:1 They acquire the eight siddhis or magical powers. 246:2 I translate the words thânâ âsurakivvisiyâ according to the explanation of the commentary. But they may also mean: from the sphere of Asuras and sinners.