Jaina Sutras, Part II (SBE45), tr. by Hermann Jacobi,  There was a Gina, Pârsva 3 by name, an Arhat, worshipped by the people, who was thoroughly enlightened and omniscient, a prophet of the Law, and a Gina. (1) And there was a famous disciple of this Light of the World, the young Sramana Kêsi, who had completely mastered the sciences and right conduct. (2) He possessed the light of Sruta and Avadhi knowledge 1, and was surrounded by a crowd of disciples; wandering from village to village he arrived in the town of Srâvastî. (3) In the district of that town there is a park, called Tinduka; there he took up his abode in a pure place to live and sleep in. (4) Now at that time there lived the Prophet of the Law, the Gina, who in the whole world is known as the venerable Vardhamâna. (5) And there was a famous disciple of this Light of the World, the venerable Gautama by name, who had completely mastered the sciences and right conduct. (6) He knew the twelve Aṅgas, was enlightened, and was surrounded by a crowd of disciples; wandering from village to village he too arrived in Srâvastî. (7) In the district of that town there is a park Kôshthaka; there he took up his abode in a pure place to live and sleep in. (8) The young Sramana Kêsi and the famous Gautama, both lived there, protecting themselves (by the Guptis) and being careful. (9) The pupils of both, who, controlled themselves, who practised austerities, who possessed virtues, and who protected their Self, made the following reflection: (10) 'Is our Law the right one, or is the other Law 1 the right one? are our conduct and doctrines right, or the other? (it) 'The Law as taught by the great sage Pârsva, which recognises but four vows 2, or the Law taught by Vardhamâna, which enjoins five vows? (12) 'The Law which forbids clothes (for a monk), hr that which (allows) an under and upper garment? Both pursuing the same end, what has caused their difference?' (13) Knowing the thoughts of their pupils, both Kêsi and Gautama made up their minds to meet each other. (14) Gautama, knowing what is proper and what is due to the older section (of the church), went to the Tinduka park, accompanied by the crowd, his pupils. (15) When Kêsi, the young monk, saw Gautama approach, he received him with all becoming attention. (16) He at once offered Gautama the four pure kinds of straw and hay 3 to sit upon. (17) Kêsi, the young Sramana, and the famous Gautama, sitting together, shone forth with a lustre like that of sun and moon. (18) There assembled many heretics out of curiosity, and many thousands of laymen; (19) Gods, Dânavas, Gandharvas, Yakshas, Râkshasas, and Kinnaras (assembled there), and there came together invisible ghosts 1 too. (20) Kêsi said to Gautama, 'I want to ask you something, holy man.' Then to these words of Kêsi Gautama made the following reply: "Sir, ask whatever you like." Then with his permission Kêsi spoke to Gautama: (21, 22) 'The Law taught by the great sage Pârsva, recognises but four vows, whilst that of Vardhamâna enjoins five. (23) 'Both Laws pursuing the same end, what has caused this difference? Have you no misgivings about this twofold Law, O wise man?' (24) Then to these words of Kêsi Gautama made the following reply: "Wisdom recognises the truth of the Law and the ascertainment of true things. (25) "The first 2 saints were simple but slow of understanding, the last saints prevaricating and slow of understanding, those between the two simple and wise; hence there are two forms of the Law 3. (26) "The first could but with difficulty understand the precepts of the Law, and the last could only with difficulty observe them, but those between them easily understood and observed them." (27) 'Well, Gautama, you possess wisdom, you have destroyed my doubt; but I have another doubt which you must explain to me, Gautama. (28) 'The Law taught by Vardhamâna forbids clothes, but that of the great sage Pârsva allows an under and upper garment. (29) 'Both Laws pursuing the same end, what has caused this difference? Have you no misgivings about this twofold Law, O wise man?' (30) To these words of Kêsi Gautama made the following reply: "Deciding the matter by their superior knowledge, (the Tîrthakaras) have fixed what is necessary for carrying out the Law. (31) "The various outward marks (of religious men) have been introduced in order that people might recognise them as such; the reason for the characteristic marks is their usefulness for religious life and their distinguishing character. (32) "Now the opinion (of the Tîrthakaras) is that knowledge, faith. and right conduct are the true causes of final liberation, (and not the outward marks)." (33) 'Well, Gautama, you possess wisdom, you have destroyed my doubt; but I have another doubt, which you must explain to me, Gautama. (34) 'Gautama, you stand in the midst of many thousand (foes) who make an attack on you; how have you vanquished them 1? (35) "By vanquishing one, five are vanquished; by vanquishing five, ten are vanquished; by this tenfold victory, I vanquish all foes." (36) Kêsi said to Gautama: 'Whom do you call a foe?' To these words of Kêsi Gautama made the following reply: (37) "Self is the one invincible foe, (together with the four) cardinal passions 2, (viz. anger, pride, deceit, and greed, they are five) and the (five) senses (make ten). These (foes), O great sage, I have regularly vanquished." (38) 'Well, Gautama, &c. (as in verse 28). (19) 'We see many beings in this world who are bound by fetters; how have you got rid of your fetters and are set free, O sage?' (40) "Having cut off all fetters, and having destroyed them by the right means, I have got rid of my fetters and am set free, O sage." (41) Kêsi said to Gautama: 'What do you call fetters?' [paragraph continues] To these words of Kêsi Gautama made the following reply: (42) "Love, hatred, &c., are heavy fetters, attachment is a dangerous one; having regularly destroyed them, I live up to the rules of conduct." (43) 'Well, Gautama, &c. (as in verse 28). (44) 'O Gautama, in the innermost heart there grows a plant which brings forth poisonous fruit; how have you torn it out?' (45) "I have thoroughly clipped that plant, and torn it out altogether with its roots; thus I have got rid of the poisonous fruit." (46) Kêsi said to Gautama, 'What do you call that plant?' To these words of Kêsi Gautama made the following reply: (47) "Love of existence is that dreadful plant which brings forth dreadful fruit; having regularly torn it out, I live pleasantly." (48) 'Well, Gautama, &c. (as in verse 28). (49) 'Gautama, there is blazing up a frightful fire which burns 1 the embodied beings; how have you put it out?' (50) "Taking water, excellent water, from (the river) produced by the great cloud, I always pour it over my body; thus sprinkled the fire does not burn me." (51) Kêsi said to Gautama, 'What do you call the fire?' To these words of Kêsi Gautama made the following reply: (52) "The passions are the fire; knowledge, a virtuous life, and penances are the water; sprinkled with the drops of knowledge the fire of the passions is extinguished and does not burn me." (53) 'Well, Gautama, &c. (as in verse 28). (54) 'The unruly, dreadful, bad horse, on which you sit, runs about, Gautama! how comes it to pass that it does not run off with you?' (55) "I govern it well in its course by the bridle of knowledge; it does not go astray with me, it keeps to the right path." (56) Kêsi said to Gautama, 'What do you call this horse?' To these words of Kêsi Gautama made the following reply: (57) "The mind is that unruly, dreadful, bad horse; I govern it by the discipline of the Law (so that it becomes a well-) trained Kambôga-steed 1." (58) 'Well, Gautama, &c. (as in verse 28). (59) 'There are many bad roads in this world, which lead men astray; how do you avoid, Gautama, going astray as you are on the road?' (60) "They all are known to me, those who are in the right path and those who have chosen a wrong path; therefore I do not go astray, O sage!" (61) Kêsi said to Gautama, 'What do you call the path?' To these words of Kêsi Gautama made the following reply: (62) "The heterodox and the heretics have all chosen a wrong path; the right path is that taught by the Ginas; it is the most excellent path." (63) 'Well, Gautama, &c. (as in verse 28). (64) 'Is there a shelter, a refuge, a firm ground for the beings carried away by the great flood of water? do you know the island, O Gautama?' (65) "There is a large, great island in the midst of water, which is not inundated by the great flood of water." (66) Kêsi said to Gautama, 'What do you call this island?' To these words of Kêsi Gautama made the following reply: (67) "The flood is old age and death, which carry away living beings; Law is the island, the firm ground, the refuge, the most excellent shelter." (68) 'Well, Gautama, &c. (as in verse 28). (69) 'On the ocean with its many currents there drifts a boat; how will you, Gautama, on board of it reach the opposite shore?' (70) "A boat that leaks will not reach the opposite shore; but a boat that does not leak, will reach it." (71) Kêsi said to Gautama, 'What do you call this boat?' To these words of Kêsi Gautama made the following reply: (72) "The body is the boat, life is the sailor, and the Circle of Births is the ocean which is crossed by the great sages." (73) 'Well, Gautama, &c. (as in verse 28). (74) 'In this dreadfully dark gloom there live many beings; who will bring light into the whole world of living beings?' (75) "The spotless sun has risen which illuminates the whole world; he will bring light into the whole world of living beings." (76) Kêsi said to Gautama, 'What do you call this sun?' To these words of Kêsi Gautama made the following reply: (77) "Risen has he who put an end to the Circle of [paragraph continues] Births, the omniscient Gina, the luminary, who brings light into the whole world of living beings." (78) 'Well, Gautama, &c. (as in verse 28). (79) 'Do you, O sage, know a safe, happy, and quiet place for living beings which suffer from pains 1 of body and mind?' (80) "There is a safe place in view of all, but difficult of approach, where there is no old age nor death, no pain nor disease." (81) Kêsi said to Gautama, 'What is this place called?' To these words of Kêsi Gautama made the following reply: (82) "It is what is called Nirvâna, or freedom from pain, or perfection, which is in view of all; it is the safe, happy, and quiet place which the great sages reach. (83) "That is the eternal place, in view of all, but difficult of approach. Those sages who reach it are free from sorrows, they have put an end to the stream of existence." (84) 'Well, Gautama, you possess wisdom, you have destroyed my doubt; obeisance to you, who are not troubled by doubts, who are the ocean, as it were, of all Sûtras.' (85) After his doubt had been solved, Kêsi, of enormous sanctity, bowed his head to the famous Gautama. (86) And in the pleasant (Tinduka park) he sincerely adopted the Law of the five vows, which was proclaimed by the first Tîrthakara, according to the teaching of the last Tîrthakara. (87) In that meeting of Kêsi and Gautama, knowledge and virtuous conduct were for ever brought to eminence, and subjects of the greatest importance were settled. (88) The whole assembly was greatly pleased and fixed their thoughts on the right way. They praised Kêsi and Gautama: 'May the venerable ones show us favour!' (89) Thus I say. 119:2 In this lecture we have a very interesting legend about the way in which the union of the old church of Pârsva and the new church of Mahâvîra was brought about. A revival of this ancient difference seems to have caused the united church afterwards to divide again into the present Svêtâmbara and Digambara sects. They do not continue the two primitive churches, but seem to have grown out of the united church. 119:3 Pârsva is the last but one Tîrthakara, his Nirvâna took place 250 years before that of Mahâvîra. This statement, which has been generally accepted, is, however, in seeming contradiction to the account of our text, according to which a disciple of Pârsva, who is called a young monk kumâra-sramana, met Gautama, i.e. Sudharman, the disciple of Mahâvîra. We therefore must take the word disciple, sîse, as paramparâsishya, that is not in its literal sense. See note 3, . 120:1 These are the second and third kinds of knowledge according to the Gaina classification. Sruta is the knowledge derived from the sacred books, and avadhi is limited or conditioned knowledge. See Bhandarkar, Report, . 121:1 Viz. the Law of Pârsva or the Law of Mahâvîra. 121:2 Hence it is called kâuggâma kâturyâma. Chastity (maithunaviramana) was not explicitly enumerated, but it was understood to be contained in the fourth commandment: to have no property (aparigraha). 121:3 The four kinds of straw are: sâlî vîhî koddava râlaga, to which is added hay: ranne tanâni. 122:1 Bhûya = bhûta, explained Vyantara. The vantara or vânamantara are a class of ghosts. The second part of the word apparently is tara 'crossing,' and the first seems to contain an accusative vam or vânamam which may be connected with viha or vyôman 'air.' 122:2 Those under the first Tîrthakaras. 122:3 The meaning of this explanation is as follows. As the vow of chastity is not explicitly mentioned among Pârsva's four vows, but was understood to be implicitly enjoined by them, it follows that only such men as were of an upright disposition and quick understanding would not go astray by observing the four vows literally, i.e. by not abstaining from sexual intercourse, as it was not expressly forbidden.--The argumentation in the text presupposes a decay of the morals of the monastic order to have occurred between Pârsva and Mahâvîra, and this is possible only on the assumption of a sufficient interval of time having elapsed between the last two Tîrthakaras. And this perfectly agrees with the common tradition that Mahâvîra came 250 years after Pârsva. 124:1 This question does not refer to the difference in doctrines between Pârsva and Mahâvîra, but is discussed here, as the commentator states, for the benefit of the pupils of both sages who are engaged in conversation. I think, however, that this and the following questions are asked and answered here by the disciples of the two Tîrthakaras for a better reason than that given by the scholiast. For in them the leading topics of Gainism are treated in a symbolical way. Gautama at once understands the true meaning of the similes and interprets them to the satisfaction of Kêsi. In this way the unity in doctrine subsisting between the Law of Pârsva and that of Mahâvîra is demonstrated to the hearers of the dispute, after the differences had been explained away. 124:2 Kashâya. 125:1 In the original 'fire' is put in the plural because the four kashâyas or cardinal passions are denoted by it. 126:1 Kanthaka, see above, , note 2. 128:1 Mânasê dukkhê stands for mânasêhim dukkhêhim. It is an interesting instance of the dropping of case affixes, which probably was more frequent in the vernacular.