Our times are characterized by an increasing religious diversity that manifests itself in religious conflict, even violence, as well as in powerful engagement, mutual critique and cooperation. Powerful engagement and mutual critique are crucial to combatting religious conflict and helping to prevent violence. But how far is too far in critiquing another religion? Are there any limits?
One limit, and there should be no disagreement on this one, is deliberate distortion or even dishonesty in presenting the views of another religion. Even accidental distortion is out of bounds–it means you have not done your homework about another religion. If you don’t know, don’t pontificate. It doesn’t help and it increases the likelihood of religious conflict. Deliberate distortion is provocation–it is designed to further conflict, not resolve it.
Another limit is dismissive or gratuitous characterizations of another religion. These kinds of comments also fuel conflict rather than resolving it. Am I going to want to engage a commentator of another faith if she or he is being dismissive, even insulting about my faith? Let’s take this approach off the table too. It closes doors to understanding rather than opening them.
But beyond that, what about vigorous engagement? Shouldn’t that be on the table, so to speak? Certainly it should–but here let’s come clean about some profound religious differences and how they affect the way different religious leaders engage each other in debate.
There’s a lot of “coming clean” that needs to be done by religious leaders who engage in critiques of other religions. Differences among religions matter and we need to “come clean” about that as Steve Prothero has helpfully pointed out in his book God is Not One: The Eight Rival Religions That Run The World–And Why Their Differences Matter. As Jay Tolson noted in his review, “if the devil is in the details, the point of Prothero’s useful book is that God is, too. Which is to say that the particular and often problematic features of a religion — from its core narratives and rituals to its arcane points of theology — are at least as important to its followers as those qualities that it may share with other religions.” The differences matter regardless of who is doing the critique, whether a Christian conservative, an atheist, or a progressive Christian theologian.
Yet, while religion is not one, God is another matter. God, in my Christian belief system, is infinite and thus the “oneness” of God cannot ever be fully known because infinity is beyond human understanding. But, in the mystery of the divine being, God is one because infinity cannot be divided. That’s the difference between a religious studies approach as taken by Prothero, and a theological approach such as my own.
Theological differences matter as well in the approach of different religious leaders to the critique of other faith traditions. When I look at another religious tradition, I hold open the possibility that I can learn something of the infinite God. God, in my theological view, can be self-revealing to other traditions and this is part of what infinity means.
Others, however, look at other traditions and see heresy. Their belief is that the revelation they have received is the complete and only truth. In this perspective, no other faith tradition can be a source of religious truth and it contains only falsehoods.
It doesn’t take a lot of imagination to realize that one’s critical engagement of a different faith tradition will be different, profoundly different, if you approach another faith as a possible way to learn something about the infinite God, or if you are convinced that all other faiths (and some within your own faith) can only be expressing falsehoods.
Here’s what I recommend: we all need to honest up front about our beliefs regarding the possibility of God’s self-revelation being possible in another faith, or not. The possibility of revelation being potentially present in other faiths doesn’t mean there is no scope for critique. Far from it. But if you believe there is nothing in other faiths that can be of God, you should state that up front. That’s a way of “coming clean” about your theological commitments and how they influence your critique. Then it’s “reader beware” and those who read the critiques can judge them accordingly.
This is new territory for many; setting up some mutually agreed upon criteria might be a very good thing. No lying or distortion, no gratuitous insults, do your homework, and be explicit about how your faith commitments influence your critiques. Those are my suggestions.