Quran recitation ayah of jihad - dutch Nederlands subs

source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qeSQz2fAaQ4

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1 Sahil Badruddin = ""The doctrine of jihad, as it slowly developed in the Quran, was specifically meant to differentiate between pre-Islamic and Islamic notions of warfare, and to infuse the latter with what Mustansir Mir calls an “ideological-cum-ethical dimension” that, until that point, did not exist in the Arabian Peninsula. At the heart of the doctrine of jihad was the heretofore unrecognized distinction between combatant and noncombatant. Thus, the killing of women, children, monks, rabbis, the elderly, or any other noncombatant was absolutely forbidden under any circumstances. Muslim law eventually expanded on these prohibitions to outlaw the torture of prisoners of war; the mutilation of the dead; rape, molestation, or any kind of sexual violence during combat; the killing of diplomats, the wanton destruction of property, and the demolition of religious or medical institutions—regulations that, as Hilmi Zawati has observed, were all eventually incorporated into the modern international laws of war. But perhaps the most important innovation in the doctrine of jihad was its outright prohibition of all but strictly defensive wars. “Fight in the way of God those who fight you,” the Quran says, “but do not begin hostilities; God does not like the aggressor” (2:190). Elsewhere the Quran is more explicit: “permission to fight is given only to those who have been oppressed . . . who have been driven from their homes for saying, ‘God is our Lord’ ” (22:39; emphasis added)."- No god but God, Reza Aslan "