1Sahil B = ""The doctrine of jihad, as it slowly developed in the Quran, was specifically meant to differentiate
between pre-Islamic and Islamic notions of warfare, and to infuse the latter with what Mustansir Mir calls an
“ideological-cum-ethical dimension” that, until that point, did not exist in the Arabian Peninsula. At the heart
of the doctrine of jihad was the heretofore unrecognized distinction between combatant and noncombatant.
Thus, the killing of women, children, monks, rabbis, the elderly, or any other noncombatant was absolutely
forbidden under any circumstances. Muslim law eventually expanded on these prohibitions to outlaw the
torture of prisoners of war; the mutilation of the dead; rape, molestation, or any kind of sexual violence
during combat; the killing of diplomats, the wanton destruction of property, and the demolition of religious or
medical institutions—regulations that, as Hilmi Zawati has observed, were all eventually incorporated into
the modern international laws of war. But perhaps the most important innovation in the doctrine of jihad was its outright prohibition of all but
strictly defensive wars. “Fight in the way of God those who fight you,” the Quran says, “but do not begin
hostilities; God does not like the aggressor” (2:190). Elsewhere the Quran is more explicit: “permission to
fight is given only to those who have been oppressed . . . who have been driven from their homes for
saying, ‘God is our Lord’ ” (22:39; emphasis added)."- No god but God, Reza Aslan "