text size

Eighteenth Chapter. The Way Of LIberation In Renunciation In Srimad-Bhagavad-Gita

Top comments

{{ annotation.praises_count }} Likes
{{ annotation.creator_alias }}
{{ annotation.creator_score }}

There are no comments yet. Be the first to start comment or request an explanation.

Srimad-Bhagavad-Gita, English translation and commentary by Swami Swarupananda, [1909] Arjuna said: 1. I desire to know severally, O mighty-armed, the truth of Sannyâsa, O Hrishikesha, as also of Tyâga, O slayer of Keshi. 1 The Blessed Lord said: 2. The renunciation of Kâmya actions, the sages understand as. Sannyâsa: the wise declare the abandonment of the fruits of all works as Tyâga. 2 3. Some philosophers declare that all action should be relinquished as an evil, whilst others (say) that the work of Yajna, gift and austerity should not be relinquished. 4. Hear from Me the final truth about relinquishment, O best of the Bhâratas. For relinquishment has been declared to be of three kinds, O tiger among men. 5. The work of Yajna, gift and austerity should not be relinquished, but it should indeed be performed; (for) Yajna, gift and austerity are purifying to the wise. 6. But even these works, O Pârtha, should be performed, leaving attachment and the fruits;—such is My best and certain conviction. 7. But the renunciation of obligatory action is not proper. Abandonment of the same from delusion is declared to be Tâmasika. 7 8. He who from fear of bodily trouble relinquishes action, because it is painful, thus performing a Râjasika relinquishment, he obtains not the fruit thereof. 8 9. When obligatory work is performed, O Arjuna, only because it ought to be done, leaving attachment and fruit, such relinquishment is regarded as Sâttvika. 10. The relinquisher endued with Sattva and a steady understanding and with his doubts dispelled, hates not a disagreeable work nor is attached to an agreeable one. 11. Actions cannot be entirely relinquished by an embodied being, but he who relinquishes the fruits of action is called a relinquisher. 12. The threefold fruit of action—disagreeable, agreeable and mixed,—accrues to non-relinquishers after death, but never to relinquishers. 13. Learn from Me, O mighty-armed, these five causes for the accomplishment of all works as declared in the wisdom which is the end of all action: 13 14. The body, the agent, the various senses, the different functions of a manifold kind, and the presiding divinity, the fifth of these; 14 15. Whatever action a man performs by his body, speech and mind—whether right or the reverse—these five are its causes. 16. Such being the case, he who through a non-purified understanding looks upon his Self, the Absolute, as the agent, he of perverted mind sees not. 17. He who is free from the notion of egoism, whose intelligence is not affected (by good or evil), though he kills these people, he kills not, nor is bound (by the action); 17 18. Knowledge, the known and the knower form the threefold cause of action. The instrument, the object and the agent are the threefold basis of action. 18 19. Knowledge, action and agent are declared in the Sânkhya philosophy to be of three kinds only, from the distinction of Gunas: hear them also duly. 19 20. That by which the one indestructible Substance is seen in all beings, inseparate in the separated, know that knowledge to be Sâttvika. 20 21. But that knowledge which sees in all beings various entities of distinct kinds as different from one another, know thou that knowledge as Râjasika. 21 22. Whilst that which is confined to one single effect as if it were the whole, without reason, without foundation in truth, and trivial,—that is declared to be Tâmasika. 22 23. An ordained action done without love or hatred by one not desirous of the fruit and free from attachment, is declared to be Sâttvika. 24. But the action which is performed desiring desires, or with self-conceit and with much effort, is declared to be Râjasika. 25. That action is declared to be Tâmasika which is undertaken through delusion, without heed to the consequence, loss (of power and wealth), injury (to others) and (one's own) ability. 26. An agent who is free from attachment, non-egotistic, endued with fortitude and enthusiasm and unaffected in success or failure, is called Sâttvika. 27. He who is passionate, desirous of the fruits of action, greedy, malignant, impure, easily elated or dejected, such an agent is called Râjasika. 27 28. Unsteady, vulgar, arrogant, dishonest, malicious, indolent, desponding and procrastinating, such an agent is called Tâmasika. 29. Hear thou the triple distinction of intellect and fortitude, according to the Gunas, as I declare them exhaustively and severally, O Dhananjaya. 29 30. That which knows the paths of work and renunciation, right and wrong action, fear and fearlessness, bondage and liberation, that intellect, O Pârtha, is Sâttvika. 30 31. That which has a distorted apprehension of Dharma and its opposite and also of right action and its opposite, that intellect, O Pârtha, is Râjasika. 32. That which enveloped in darkness regards Adharma as Dharma and views all things in a perverted light, that intellect, O Pârtha, is Tâmasika. 33. The fortitude by which the functions of the mind, the Prâna and the senses, O Pârtha, are regulated, that fortitude, unswerving through Yoga, is Sâttvika. 34. But the fortitude by which one regulates (one's mind) to Dharma, desire and wealth, desirous of the fruit of each from attachment, that fortitude, O Pârtha, is Râjasika. 35. That by which a stupid man does not give up sleep, fear, grief, despondency and also overweening conceit, that fortitude, O Pârtha, is Tâmasika. 35 36. And now hear from Me, O bull of the Bhâratas, of the threefold happiness. That happiness which one learns to enjoy by habit, and by which one comes to the end of pain; 37. That which is like poison at first, but like nectar at the end; that happiness is declared to be Sâttvika, born of the translucence of intellect due to Self-realisation. 38. That which arises from the contact of object with sense, at first like nectar, but at the end like poison, that happiness is declared to be Râjasika. 38 39. That happiness which begins and results in self-delusion arising from sleep, indolence and miscomprehension, that is declared to be Tâmasika. 40. There is no entity on earth, or again in heaven among the Devas, that is devoid of these three Gunas, born of Prakriti. 41. Of Brâhmanas and Kshatriyas and Vaishyas, as also of Sudras, O scorcher of foes, the duties are distributed according to the Gunas born of their own nature. 41 42. The control of the mind and the senses, austerity, purity, forbearance, and also uprightness, knowledge, realisation, belief in a hereafter,—these are the duties of the Brâhmanas, born of (their own) nature. 43. Prowess, boldness, fortitude, dexterity, and also not flying from battle, generosity and sovereignty are the duties of the Kshatriyas, born of (their own) nature. 44. Agriculture, cattle-rearing and trade are the duties of the Vaishyas, born of (their own) nature; and action consisting of service is the duty of the Sudras, born of (their own) nature. 45. Devoted each to his own duty, man attains the highest perfection. How engaged in his own duty, he attains perfection, that hear. 45 46. From whom is the evolution of all beings, by whom all this is pervaded, worshipping Him with his own duty, a man attains perfection. 46 47. Better is one's own Dharma, (though) imperfect, than the Dharma of another well-performed. He who does the duty ordained by his own nature incurs no evil. 47 48. One should not relinquish, O son of Kunti, the duty to which one is born, though it is attended with evil; for, all undertakings are enveloped by evil, as fire by smoke. 48 49. He whose intellect is unattached everywhere, who has subdued his heart, whose desires have fled, he attains by renunciation to the supreme perfection, consisting of freedom from action. 49 50. Learn from Me in brief, O son of Kunti, how reaching such perfection, he attains to Brahman, that supreme consummation of knowledge. 51. Endued with a pure intellect, subduing the body and the senses with fortitude, relinquishing sound and such other sense-objects, abandoning attraction and hatred; 51 52. Resorting to a sequestered spot, eating but little, body, speech and mind controlled, ever engaged in meditation and concentration, possessed of dispassion; 52 53. Forsaking egoism, power, pride, lust, wrath and property, freed from the notion of "mine," and tranquil, he is fit for becoming Brahman. 53 54. Brahman-become, tranquil-minded, he neither grieves nor desires; the same to all beings, he attains to supreme devotion unto Me. 54 55. By devotion he knows Me in reality, what and who I am; then having known Me in reality, he forthwith enters into Me. 56. Even doing all actions always, taking refuge in Me,—by My grace he attains to the eternal, immutable State. 57. Resigning mentally all deeds to Me, having Me as the highest goal, resorting to Buddhi-Yoga do thou ever fix thy mind on Me. 58. Fixing thy mind on Me, thou shalt, by My grace, overcome all obstacles; but if from self-conceit thou wilt not hear Me, thou shalt perish. 59. If filled with self-conceit thou thinkest, "I will not fight," vain is this thy resolve; thy Prakriti will constrain thee. 59 60. Fettered, O son of Kunti, by thy own Karma, born of thy own nature, what thou, from delusion, desirest not to do, thou shalt have to do in spite of thyself. 61. The Lord, O Arjuna, dwells in the hearts of all beings, causing all beings, by His Mâyâ, to revolve, (as if) mounted on a machine. 61 62. Take refuge in Him with all thy heart, O Bhârata; by His grace shalt thou attain supreme peace (and) the eternal abode. 63. Thus has wisdom more profound than all profundities, been declared to. thee by Me; reflecting over it fully, act as thou likest. 63 64. Hear thou again My supreme word, the profoundest of all; because thou art dearly beloved of Me, therefore will I speak what is good to thee. 64 65. Occupy thy mind with Me, be devoted to Me, sacrifice to Me, bow down to Me. Thou shalt reach Myself; truly do I promise unto thee, (for) thou art dear to Me. 65 66. Relinquishing all Dharmas take refuge in Me alone; I will liberate thee from all sins; grieve not. 66 67. This is never to be spoken by thee to one who is devoid of austerities or devotion, nor to one who does not render service, nor to one who cavils at Me. 67 68. He who with supreme devotion to Me will teach this deeply profound philosophy to My devotees, shall doubtless come to Me alone. 68 69. Nor among men is there any who does dearer service to Me, nor shall there be another on earth dearer to Me, than he. 69 70. And he who will study this sacred dialogue of ours, by him shall I have been worshipped by the Yajna of knowledge; such is My conviction. 70 71. And even that man who hears this, full of Shraddhâ and free from malice, he too, liberated, shall attain to the happy worlds of those of righteous deeds. 71 72. Has this been heard by thee, Pârtha, with an attentive mind? Has the delusion of thy ignorance been destroyed, O Dhananjaya? Arjuna said: 73. Destroyed is my delusion, and I have gained my memory through Thy grace, O Achyuta. I am firm; my doubts are gone. I will do Thy word. 73 Sanjaya said: 74. Thus have I heard this wonderful dialogue between Vâsudeva and the high-souled Pârtha, causing my hair to stand on end. 75. Through the grace of Vyâsa have I heard this supreme and most profound Yoga, direct from Krishna, the Lord of Yoga, Himself declaring it. 75 76. O King, as I remember and remember this wonderful and holy dialogue between Keshava and Arjuna, I rejoice again and again. 76 77. And as I remember and remember that most wonderful Form of Hari, great is my wonder, O King; and I rejoice again and again. 77 78. Wherever is Krishna, the Lord of Yoga, wherever is Pârtha, the wielder of the bow, there are prosperity, victory, expansion, and sound policy: such is my conviction. 78 Thus in the Srimad-Bhagavad-Gita, the Essence of the Upanishads, the Science of the Brahman, the Scripture of Yoga, the Dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna, ends the Eighteenth Chapter designated: The Way of Liberation in Renunciation. Here the Bhagavad-Gita ends. Om! Peace! Peace! Peace be to all! 364:1 Sannyâsa and Tyâga both mean renunciation. Keshi—was an Asura. 365:2 Kâmya—which are accompanied with a desire for fruits. 367:7 Since it is purifying in the case of the ignorant. 368:8 Fruit, i.e., Moksha, which comes out of the renunciation of all actions accompanied with wisdom. 370:13 Wisdom: Sânkhya,—literally, in which all the things that are to be known are expounded, therefore, the highest wisdom. 371:14 Presiding divinity: Each of the senses has its god who presides over it, and by whose aid it discharges its own functions; e.g., the Aditya (Sun) is the presiding divinity of the eye, by whose aid it sees and acts; and so on with the other senses. 372:17 He whose self-consciousness, by the force of long, strenuous, and properly-trained self-concentration, is ever identified with Brahman, and not with the five causes of action as mentioned in Sloka 14,—he whose self-consciousness never mistakes itself for the body, mind and the like, even when performing physical acts,—he is ever free from the taint of action. 373:18 Basis—because the threefold action inheres in these three. 374:19 Sânkhya: the Science of the Gunas by Kapila. Though there is a conflict in the matter of supreme Truth—the oneness or non-duality of Brahman—between the Vedânta and the Sânkhya, yet the Sânkhya view is given here, because it is an authority on the science of Gunas. Duly—described according to the Science, according to reason. 374:20 Inseparate: undifferentiated; permeating all. 375:21 Entities: Souls. Different from one another: Different in different bodies. 375:22 One single effect: such as the body,—thinking it to be the Self. 377:27 Elated or dejected—at the success or failure of the action in which he is engaged. 378:29 Dhananjaya: the conqueror of wealth—human and divine, earthly and celestial; an epithet of Arjuna. 379:30 Fear . . . liberation—the cause of fear and the cause of fearlessness; similarly, the cause of bondage and the cause of liberation. 381:35 Does not give up sleep &c.,—is inordinately addicted to sleep &c., regarding these to be only proper. 383:38 At the end like poison—because it leads to deterioration in strength, vigour, complexion, wisdom, intellect, wealth and energy. 384:41 According to the Karma or habits and tendencies formed by desire, action and association in the past life manifesting themselves in the present as effects. Or, nature (Svabhâva) may here mean the Mâyâ made up of the three Gunas, the Prakriti of the Lord. 386:45 Own—according to his nature. The Apastamba Dharma-Shâstra says: "Men of several castes and orders, each devoted to his respective duties, reap the fruits of their actions after death, and then by the residual Karma attain to births in superior countries, castes and families, possessed of comparatively superior Dharma, span of life, learning, conduct, wealth, happiness and intelligence." 387:46 The highest worship to the Lord consists in the closest approach to Him. The veil of Mâyâ comprising Karma or habits, tendencies and actions prevents a man from nearing the Lord, i.e., realising his own Self. By working out one's Karma alone, according to the law of one's being, can this veil be rent and the end accomplished. 387:47 As a poisonous substance does not injure the worm born in that substance, so he who does his Svadharma incurs no evil. 388:48 Duty etc.—this need not mean caste duty. All undertakings: one's own as well as others’ duties. The greatest evil is bondage and this endures so long as one lives in the realm of the Gunas, except in the case of a freed soul. All action is comprised in one or the other of the Gunas. All action therefore involves the evil of bondage. 389:49 He attains . . . renunciation—This may also be interpreted to mean: he attains the supreme state in which he remains as the actionless Self, by his renunciation of all actions, for which he is prepared by his right knowledge. 390:51 Pure: free from doubt and misconception, being merged in Brahman through the elimination of all alien attributes ascribed to It. Relinquishing sound &c.—abandoning all superfluous luxuries, all objects except those only which are necessary for the bare maintenance of the body, and laying aside attraction and hatred even for those objects. 391:52 Eating but little—as conducive to the serenity of thought by keeping off languor, sleepiness and the like. Meditation—upon the nature of the Self. Concentration—one-pointedness of thought, on one feature of the Self. Dispassion—for the seen and the unseen. 391:53 Power—that power which is combined with passion and desire. Property: Though a man who is free from all passions of the mind and the senses, may own so much of external belongings as is necessary for bodily sustenance and for the observance of his religious duties (Dharma), yet this the aspirant abandons, even if this comes of itself, because he does not regard the bodily life as his; thus he becomes a Paramahamsa Parivrâjaka, a Sannyâsin of the highest order. 392:54 Brahman-become: not that he is yet freed and become the Absolute, but is firmly grounded in the knowledge that he is Brahman. His attainment of freedom is described in the next verse. Supreme devotion: the devotion stated in VII. 17. 394:59 Thy Prakriti: Thy nature as a Kshatriya. 395:61 See commentary to IX. 10. Arjuna means 'white,' and here it signifies—'O pure-hearted one.' 396:63 It: the Shâstra, the teaching as declared above. 396:64 Again: though more than once declared. 397:65 Thou shalt reach Myself: Thus acting,—i.e., looking upon the Lord alone as thy aim, means and end—thou shalt attain the Highest. Truly do I promise unto thee.—Have implicit faith in the declarations of Me, the Lord, as I pledge thee My troth. 398:66 All Dharmas—including Adharma also: all actions, righteous or unrighteous, since absolute freedom from the bondage of all action is intended to be taught here. Take refuge in Me alone—knowing that there is naught else except Me, the Self of all, dwelling the same in all. Liberate thee—by manifesting Myself as thy own Self. All sins: all bonds of Dharma and Adharma. Sankara in his commentary here very strongly combats the opinion of those who hold that highest spiritual realisation (Jnâna) and ritualistic work (Karma) may go together in the same person. For Karma is possible only in the relative world (Samsâra), which is the outcome of ignorance; and knowledge dispels this ignorance. So neither the conjunction of Jnâna with Karma, nor Karma alone conduces to the absolute cessation of Samsâra, but it is only the Right Knowledge of the Self which does so. 399:67 This—Shâstra which has been taught to you. Service—to the Guru; also means,—to one who does not wish to hear. 399:68 Teach—in the faith that he is thus doing service to the Lord, the Supreme Teacher. Doubtless: or, freed from doubts. 400:69 He: who hands down the Shâstra to a fit person. 400:70 Yajna of knowledge: A Yajna can be performed in four ways, such as (1) Vidhi or ritual, (2). Japa, (3) Upâmsu, or a prayer uttered, in a low voice, or (4) Mânasa or prayer offered with the mind. Jnâna-yajna or the Yajna of knowledge comes under the head of Mânasa, and is therefore the highest. The study of the Gitâ will produce an effect equal to that of the Yajna of knowledge. 401:71 Even that man: much more so he who understands the doctrine. 402:73 Memory—of the true nature of the Self. Firm—in Thy command. The purpose of the knowledge of the Shâstras is the destruction of doubts and delusions, and the recognition of the true nature of the Self. Here, the answer of Arjuna conclusively shows, that that purpose has been fulfilled in him. The teaching of the Shâstra is over here. The rest is only to connect it with the main narrative. 403:75 Through . . . Vyâsa: by obtaining from him the Divya-chakshu or divine vision. 404:76 King: Dhritarâshtra. 404:77 Form: Vishvarupa, the Universal Form. 405:78 The bow—called the Gândiva.

read all comments

1 Enakshi Ganguly = ""Now, what is it that we abandon, and what is it that we relinquish? The word ‘sannyasa’ suggests renunciation, but it does not suggest what should be renounced. Here is the difficulty before all Sannyasins. They know very well that when they take to Sannyasa, something has to be renounced, because the very word ‘sannyasa’ means renunciation; but what are they to renounce? Generally they renounce their old clothes and put on new clothes, or they renounce their land and property, their family, etc., if that could be possible.Actually, according to the Bhagavadgita at least, such a kind of relinquishment cannot be regarded as Sannyasa. This is because a person may be physically away from the object of attraction and attachment, but physical distance from the object of attachment does not necessarily mean absence of attachment. Sannyasins may, even after entering into the holy order, keep in their minds the memory of large estates of land that they had, etc. Renunciation is a difficult thing to understand; and so is the case with tyaga, or abandonment."Source: http://www.swami-krishnananda.org/bgita/bgita_48.html"
2 Enakshi Ganguly = ""Here the Lord says sannyasa is that kind of behaviour by which the actions that are connected with desire of some kind or the other are abandoned...That is to say, sannyasa does not mean abandonment of action as such. It means kāmyānāṁ karmaṇāṁ nyāsaṁ: abandonment of actions which are connected with a desire of some kind. If we can think of an action without any desire attached to it, that is a different matter. It is up to us to imagine if such an action is possible at all: an action with which no desire is associated, and from which we expect nothing.Here, the reference is to another kind of action. Action which is charged with a motive, any kind of motivated action, is kamya karma; and the abandoning ofkamya karma, or motivated action, is sannyasa. This is the definition of sannyasagiven by great ancient learned ones, called kavis—saṁnyāsaṁ kavayo viduḥ."Source: http://www.swami-krishnananda.org/bgita/bgita_48.html"
3 Enakshi Ganguly = ""Total giving up all desire-prompted activities is renunciation while giving up of the fruits of actions is relinquishment. On the face of it these two statements appear to have the same implication because desires are always for the fruits of actions. Although both mean giving up of desire, Sannyasa is giving up of desire motivated action while Tyaga is giving up of desire for the fruits of actions."Source: http://esamskriti.com/essays/BG-CH-18.pdf"
4 Enakshi Ganguly = "The final stage for sages. This is when those who want to live fully as sages, renounce all worldly attachments and live in ashrams. Even something as basic, and perhaps natural, as fire is considered a worldly good-- a sign of domesticity. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sannyasa"
5 Ben N = "It is good to perform acts of generosity and service, as well as austerities, renunciations and other spiritual practices, yet the fruits of these actions should not be coveted, but offered up. We should perform such good deeds without any expectation of reward, or attachment to the results."
6 Enakshi Ganguly = "Many wise and learned ones say that all action ought to be renounced, since there is always an inevitability of expectation from that action. "But other great ones tell us that not all actions should be abandoned under the impression that they are all defective, because there are certain actions which are purifying in their nature, and they are obligatory on the part of every person. These actions—namely, yajna, dana and tapas—are very necessary for all people."Source: http://www.swami-krishnananda.org/bgita/bgita_48.html"
7 Enakshi Ganguly = ""What is yajna, what is dana, what is tapas? Tapas pertains to us, dana pertains to others, and sacrifice, or yajna, pertains to the gods. We have a duty towards ourselves, a duty towards others, and a duty towards the Supreme Divinity manifesting itself as the controlling power of the cosmos. Therefore, we cannot say that we shall not do anything. We have to do something for our welfare, for others’ welfare, and for the satisfaction of God Himself. The sacrifice that we perform for the satisfaction of the Supreme Divinity, which is the ultimate sacrifice, is called yajna. The charity that we do for the pleasure of people and the welfare of people is called dana, or philanthropic deeds. Tapas—inward austerity, self-control, self-discipline, restraint of the mind and the sense organs—is a duty of every person seeking God.Therefore, we cannot say, “It is an action; therefore, I will not do it.” We have to do it because tapas is conducive to our welfare, charity or dana is conducive to the welfare of others, and yajna or sacrifice is conducive to the satisfaction of God Himself."Source: http://www.swami-krishnananda.org/bgita/bgita_48.html"
8 Enakshi Ganguly = ""To be rid of attachment and to be free from anxieties regarding the fruits of actions that will accrue at a future time are the roots of the Krishna doctrine in the Gita. Detachment is not a matter of outward action or inaction; it is the possession of the impersonal outlook and inner renunciation of ego while performing action."Source: http://esamskriti.com/essays/BG-CH-18.pdf"
9 Enakshi Ganguly = "As physical beings, we have obligations to our society, to ourselves, and to God. We cannot shirk those responsibilities because they require too much work or too much effort. If anything, the duties that are the most demanding are the most necessary to be fulfilled."
10 Enakshi Ganguly = ""Work for material satisfaction must be given up, but activities which promote one to spiritual activity, like cooking for the Supreme Lord and offering the food to the Lord and then accepting the food, are recommended. It is said that a person in the renounced order of life should not cook for himself. Cooking for oneself is prohibited, but cooking for the Supreme Lord is not prohibited. Similarly, asannyasi may perform a marriage ceremony to help his disciple in the advancement of Krsna consciousness. If one renounces such activities, it is to be understood that he is acting in the mode of darkness."Source: http://www.asitis.com/18/7.html"
11 Enakshi Ganguly = ""TEXT 7niyatasya tu sannyasah karmano nopapadyate mohat tasya parityagas tamasah parikirtitahSYNONYMSniyatasya--prescribed duties; tu--but; sannyasah--renunciation;karmanah--activities; na--never; upapadyate--is deserved; mohat--by illusion; tasya--of which; parityagah--renunciation; tamasah--in the mode of ignorance; parikirtitah--is declared."Source: http://www.asitis.com/18/7.html"
12 Enakshi Ganguly = ""Tamasic relinquishment is mentioned as that form of abandonment of action which is tantamount to abandonment of duty itself; that is called tamasic relinquishment. There is another relinquishment, called rajasic tyaga: “Because it is difficult—it is very painful, it involves a lot of hardship, I have to work day and night—therefore, I will not do that work.” This argument for not doing a work is not actually feasible or tenable. The reason for not doing a work should not be merely the fact that it is a strain upon oneself to do hard work. We have to sweat, and “I do not want to sweat; therefore, I will not do this work. Physically it is painful, torturous and, therefore, I am afraid of doing this kind of work or undertaking this project.” When a person abandons doing a work because it is painful and requires hard labour on their part, that kind of abandonment of work is called rajasic tyaga. It is not sattvic."Source: http://www.swami-krishnananda.org/bgita/bgita_48.html"
13 Enakshi Ganguly = "one needs to practice deep introspection in order to understand the duties that are truly for them, and the duties that are being pushed on to them but are artificial in nature. we must understand the difference between not taking on a task out of laziness and not doing so because it truly does not align with our nature and way of being."
14 Enakshi Ganguly = ""One who is in Krsna consciousness should not give up earning money out of fear that he is performing fruitive activities. If by working one can engage his money in Krsna consciousness, or if by rising early in the morning one can advance his transcendental Krsna consciousness, one should not desist out of fear or because such activities are considered troublesome. Such renunciation is in the mode of passion. The result of passionate work is always miserable. Even if a person renounces work in that spirit, he never gets the result of renunciation."Source: http://www.asitis.com/18/8.html"
15 Enakshi Ganguly = "Rajasika Nature"
16 Enakshi Ganguly = ""A man of pure nature performs actions that have fallen to his lot in accordance with his capacity and inherent nature. He is not filled with pride in performing action nor does he hope to gain any reward therefrom. When a man performs his obligatory duties without the spirit of doership and selfishness, his mind is purified and becomes fit for Self Realization. This kind of renunciation of attachment in performing action as also the expectation of the rewards of such action is considered Sattvic. It will be noted from the above three verses that the discussion is not so much about what is to be renounced as to how and where one should act. Thus the concept of Tyaga in the Gita is a subjective renunciation of selfishness and desire in the field of activity and not giving up the world and one's duties and actions in it. Acting in the outside world, renouncing ego and egocentric desires, an individual grows in inward purity."Source: http://esamskriti.com/essays/BG-CH-18.pdf"
17 Enakshi Ganguly = "Sattva Nature"
18 Enakshi Ganguly = ""A man of Sattvic relinquishment never hates any disagreeable work and environment nor gets attached to any agreeable fields of action and favorable scheme of things. He does his duties under all circumstances, agreeable or disagreeable, without getting elated when successful or dejected when faced with obstacles. He is not overwhelmed by joy or sorrow; he is always equanimous. He is independent of the happenings around him. Even the low impulses like jealousy, anger, passion, greed etc. do not influence him. He does not become a victim of his own mental impressions, Vasanas."Source: http://esamskriti.com/essays/BG-CH-18.pdf"
19 Enakshi Ganguly = ""Sattvic work is work done for work’s sake only, whether or not it brings any fruit. Actually, every duty performed well—in a most unselfish manner—will, of its own accord, bring a result which is most pleasant, and we need not ask for it. Every duty is connected with a privilege; and we should not cry for the privilege. If we ask for it, it will not come. If we do our duty well, the privilege automatically follows without asking for it."Source: http://www.swami-krishnananda.org/bgita/bgita_48.html"
20 Ben N = "The sense of self as the "doer," or cause of action is a delusion. He who believes that he is the agent and the "doer" of his acts does not see or understand the true nature of reality. He who is free from the false sense of self acts, but is not bound by his actions."
21 Enakshi Ganguly = ""Inertia or non-action is not the ideal. Action without any selfish desires or expectation of gain, performed in the spirit that `I am not the doer, I am surrendering myself to the Universal Self' is the ideal set before us. The Gita does not teach the complete renunciation of works but the conversion of all works into nishkama karma or desireless action."Source: http://esamskriti.com/essays/BG-CH-18.pdf"
22 Enakshi Ganguly = ""Adhiṣṭhānaṁ tathā kartā karaṇaṁ ca pṛthagvidham, vividhāś ca pṛthakceṣṭā daivaṁ caivātra pañcamam (18.14)...Vividhāś ca pṛthakceṣṭā refers to the varieties of distracting factors conditioning the mind during the performance of any work. Even when we are doing one work, twenty ideas may be in our mind at the same time, pulling us in different directions, and it does not mean that a person thinks only one thought at a time. Even when we are doing one work, if we are able to think only that and nothing else, we are really a great person. But, generally that is not possible. There is a memory of something that happened in the past, and an apprehension of something that could take place in the future, and a fear of something that is in the present. These will distract the mind. These operations of the mind which distract are also conditioning factors in the performance of the work."Source: http://www.swami-krishnananda.org/bgita/bgita_48.html"
23 Enakshi Ganguly = ""There is a fifth factor, which we always forget: the will of God—daivam chaivatra panchamam. A thing that is not sanctioned by the Ultimate Will of the universe will not take place, however much we may sweat. That which is to happen will happen, whatever be our effort to prevent it; and that which is not to happen will not happen, even if we call for it. This is the inscrutable factor operating behind all things. Our very mind, our very body, our egoism, our mental faculty, our very existence, is conditioned by the central Cosmic Will; and if it does not permit any event to take place, that event will never take place even if millions of people work hard to make it happen. Empires will crash in one moment if it is the will of the universal historical principle; we may call it the time process or the time spirit. Whatever be our effort in the direction of guarding our person, our society, or our country, it has to be sanctioned by the Supreme Will. As Sri Krishna told Arjuna, “Go ahead. You will succeed.” But that sanction was not there for the Kauravas, and the opposite result followed."Source: http://www.swami-krishnananda.org/bgita/bgita_48.html"
24 Enakshi Ganguly = ""The five components of action are  The body -Adhishthaanam -the gateway for the entrance and existence of stimuli  The ego -Karta- which seeks fulfillment of the action through the body the organs of perception - Karanam - through which the inner personality comes into contact with the field of enjoyment and satisfaction The organs of action and the presiding deities of the organs of perception which make them work properly. The deities represent an unseen power other than the human factors. Each of the sense organs is controlled by a reflection of Consciousness called Presiding deity."Source: http://esamskriti.com/essays/BG-CH-18.pdf"
25 Enakshi Ganguly = ""The word ahankarah means the ego and refers to one who thinks themselves the doer of actions. It is an erroneous figment of the mind that illusorily attaches itself to one's own self the conviction that: I myself am doing such and such action. This false notion arises out of identification with the false ego and infatuation to a bodily conception. Such notion and conceptions are completely absent in those of spiritual intelligence who have surrendered themselves to the Supreme Lord. The words na lipyate means not attached to the rewards of actions. Since one of spiritual intelligence understands that they are never independent they realise that the rewards from their actions is not of their concern. Hence they do not consider themselves the doer and are solely dependent upon the Supreme Lord. Whose intelligence has been refined in this manner is known to be purified and untainted. The inference is that although one may perform innumerable activities they perform them not because they are bereft of considering themselves the doer they are not subject to be a recipient to receive the consequent merits or demerits resulting from any action. This highly evolved consciousness of being fully dependent upon the Supreme Lord and never considering oneself as the doer of any action arises out of a jiva or embodied being prevalence of sattva guna the mode of goodness. Therefore it is a virtuous trait and worthy of acquisition to be cultured and implemented. Next the differentiation of actions resulting from interaction and influences of the three gunas or modes of material nature will be examined by Lord Krishna in detail to illustrate from where the inducement and incentive to perform actions arises."Source: http://www.bhagavad-gita.org/Gita/verse-18-16.html"
26 Enakshi Ganguly = ""Yasya nāhaṁkṛto bhāvo buddhir yasya na lipyate, hatvāpi sa imāl lokān na hanti na nibadhyate (18.17): We may confront the whole world if we like, and yet if our ego is annihilated completely, that is, if we do not have even an inkling that we are doing the action and feel that the Universal Will is operating through us, if that is the case, then we may even work the destruction of things, yet no result will follow as a nemesis of painful experience, provided—this provision is very important—provided we have totally annihilated our egoism and we do not even know that we are existing, and we always feel that the Universal is operating through us. Otherwise, we will be bound by anything that we do."Source: http://www.swami-krishnananda.org/bgita/bgita_48.html"
27 Enakshi Ganguly = ""The impulse to action is made up of Knowledge (Jnanam), the Known (Jneyam) and the Knower (Parijnata). They indicate the experience, the experienced and the experiencer respectively. No action is possible without these three constituents. From the experiencer the impulse for action comes out as a desire, from the experienced as a temptation and from the experience as a memory of enjoyment."Source: http://esamskriti.com/essays/BG-CH-18.pdf"
28 Enakshi Ganguly = ""Therefore Sri Krishna says that those who have no sense of egoism and whose intelligence is not vitiated by false values of possession, acquisition etc. perform no action although they act. The statement `performing no action while acting' means that even while a man of above mentioned temperament is acting in the world, such actions leave no mental impressions (Vasanas) in him and he remains detached. An egoless man of wisdom while working in any field is an expression of the Infinite Will and in that attitude of surrender and dedication actions performed by him leave no vasanas in him. Hence The Lord says `though he kills he does not kill'."Source: http://esamskriti.com/essays/BG-CH-18.pdf"
29 Enakshi Ganguly = ""In a way we can say that the teachings of the Gita are concluded here. At the beginning Sri Krishna stated the proposition: “The self slays not nor is slain” (2.19) and gave the immutability of the Self as the reason (2.20). He also briefly introduced the idea (2.21) that an enlightened person is not compelled to engage in action and explained it in detail through the treatise. Now He concludes His discourses by saying that “the wise man slays not nor is he bound”."Source: http://esamskriti.com/essays/BG-CH-18.pdf"
30 Enakshi Ganguly = "Sankhya Philosophy & Knowledge"
31 Enakshi Ganguly = "Prakriti Purusha and Sankhya"
32 Enakshi Ganguly = "Source: http://www.ki-atsu.com/Philosophy"
33 Enakshi Ganguly = "Sankhya Philosophy"
34 Enakshi Ganguly = "Sankhya Philosophy Information"
35 Enakshi Ganguly = ""In varna-asrama or the divisions of society theBrahmins comprise the spiritual heiarchy, theksatriyas the royal and warrior class, the vaisyasthe farmer and mercantile class and the sudra the worker class serving the previous three. The other four divisions are brahmacari or celibate student life, grihasta or married householder life, vanaprastha or separation from wife and family and sannyasa or complete renunciation from society and exclusive devotion to the Supreme Lord Krishna or any of His authorised incarnations as revealed in Vedic scriptures. There are all variances in appearance within these eight divisions such as tall, strong, attractive, delicate, etc. Yet one who sees the one undivided, spiritual reality of the atma or immortal souls existing equally within all jivas or embodied beings and perceives that they are all inconceivably indivisible although manifesting individually sharing collectively in eternality is firmly situated in sattva guna the mode of goodness. One who sees the atma as indestructible and unchangeable within the destructible and changeable physical body and who although performing variegated prescribed activities in any capacity has comprehended that they are not the actual doer and also have no interest in the rewards of actions is situated in sattva guna."Source: http://www.bhagavad-gita.org/Gita/verse-18-19.html"
36 Enakshi Ganguly = ""What is sattvic knowledge? It is that knowledge or wisdom or insight by which we are able to see the unity in the midst of the diversity of things, and we can locate the one Absolute manifesting itself in all these varieties of forms. If the variety of objects in the world do not in any way preclude our vision of the Absolute being immanently present in all things, and if we can see it directly with our own eyes, as it were—the Universal Absolute hiddenly present in the midst of all these apparently divided things—this knowledge, if at all we have got it, is to be considered as the best of knowledge. The highest knowledge is this, the best knowledge is this; sattvic knowledge is this."Source: http://www.swami-krishnananda.org/bgita/bgita_48.html"
37 Enakshi Ganguly = ""Rajasika tapas may be considered one step higher than tamasika, but falls short of the ideal sattvika tapas. A characteristic feature of rajasika tapas is pretence, egoism and ostentatious display of religiosity. Faith healers and people who show off their religiosity or disguise themselves in religious robes to make money are examples of this kind of tapas. You often come across such people in religious or social gatherings who seek attention. They dress in a particular way and speak in a well-practised artificial tone to please others and charm them. Such behaviour reflects a lack of self-confidence and self-respect. They are not happy with themselves and feel reassured only when others recognise them."Read more at: http://www.boldsky.com/yoga-spirituality/vedanta/2007/tapas-partiii.html"
38 Enakshi Ganguly = "Tamasika Nature"
39 Enakshi Ganguly = ""Firstly, it should be considered as a duty and not as an imposition. Secondly, it should be done without any kind of attachment. Thirdly, it should not be motivated by like and dislike. Fourthly, there should be no eye on the fruit that accrues from the action. That kind of action, with so many conditions attached to it, difficult indeed to perform by ordinary persons, is called sattvic karma."Source: http://www.swami-krishnananda.org/bgita/bgita_49.html"
40 Enakshi Ganguly = "If one undertakes an action with no heed to their own capabilities, the effects of taking on such action, basically, one's compatibility with the task at hand-- this carelessness is deemed tamasik.Source: http://www.swami-krishnananda.org/bgita/bgita_49.html"
41 Entonnin Arto = "I believe that I am an avatara of Krishna'snot a 100 % onea partial oneI can communicate with Him throught feelings (God is first a feeling, second a way) and language too, Yes He answers to meIn meditation he can come inside meread my storyHare KrishnaJaya Sri KrishaBook Here"
42 Ben N = "No one is perfect. We should live according to our nature and circumstances, and perform our duties as best as we can, without being attached to the results. By surrendering desire and the fruits of our actions, we are liberated from our karmic ties."