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Seventeenth Chapter. The Enquiry Into The Threefold Shraddha In Srimad-Bhagavad-Gita

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Srimad-Bhagavad-Gita, English translation and commentary by Swami Swarupananda, [1909] Arjuna said: 1. Those who setting aside the ordinance of the Shâstra, perform sacrifice with Shraddhâ, what is their condition, O Krishna? (Is it) Sattva, Rajas or Tamas? 1 The Blessed Lord said: 2. Threefold is the Shraddhâ of the embodied, which is inherent in their nature,—the Sâttvika, the Râjasika and the Tâmasika. Do thou hear of it. 2 3. The Shraddhâ of each is according to his natural disposition, O descendant of Bharata. The man consists of his Shraddhâ; he verily is what his Shraddhâ is. 3 4. Sâttvika men worship the Devas; Râjasika, the Yakshas and the Râkshasas; the others—the Tâmasika men—the Pretas and the hosts of Bhutas. 5-6. Those men who practise severe austerities not enjoined by the Shâstras, given to ostentation and egoism, possessed with the power of lust and attachment, torture, senseless as they are, all the organs in the body, and Me dwelling in the body within; know them to be of Asurika resolve. 5 7. The food also which is liked by each of them is threefold, as also Yajna, austerity and almsgiving. Do thou hear this, their distinction. 8. The foods which augment vitality, energy, strength, health, cheerfulness and appetite, which are savoury and oleaginous, substantial and agreeable, are liked by the Sâttvika. 9. The foods that are bitter, sour, saline, excessively hot, pungent, dry and burning, are liked by the Râjasika, and are productive of pain, grief and disease. 9 10. That which is stale, tasteless, stinking, cooked overnight, refuse and impure, is the food liked by the Tâmasika. 10 [ 11. That Yajna is Sâttvika which is performed by men desiring no fruit, as enjoined by ordinance, with their mind fixed on the Yajna only, for its own sake. 12. That which is performed, O best of the Bhâratas, seeking for fruit and for ostentation, know it to be a Râjasika Yajna. 13. The Yajna performed without heed to ordinance, in which no food is distributed, which is devoid of Mantras, gifts, and Shraddhâ, is said to be Tâmasika. 14. Worship of the Devas, the twice-born, the Gurus and the wise, purity, straightforwardness, continence, and non-injury are called the austerity of the body. 15. Speech which causes no vexation, and is true, as also agreeable and beneficial, and regular study of the Vedas,— these are said to form the austerity of speech. 15 16. Serenity of mind, kindliness, silence, self-control, honesty of motive,—this is called the mental austerity. 16 17. This threefold austerity practised by steadfast men, with great Shraddhâ, desiring no fruit, is said to be Sâttvika. 17 18. That austerity which is practised with the object of gaining welcome, honour and worship, and with ostentation, is here said to be Râjasika, unstable and transitory. 18 19. That austerity which is practised out of a foolish notion, with self-torture or for the purpose of wining another, is declared to be Tâmasika. 20. To give is right, gift given with this idea, to one who does no service in return, in a fit place and to a worthy person, that gift is held to be Sâttvika. 20 21. And what is given with a view to receiving in return, or looking for the fruit, or again reluctantly, that gift is held to be Râjasika. 22. The gift that is given at the wrong place or time, to unworthy persons, without regard or with disdain, that is declared to be Tâmasika. 23. "Om, Tat, Sat": this has been declared to be the triple designation of Brahman. By that were made of old the Brâhmanas, the Vedas and the Yajnas. 23 24. Therefore, uttering 'Om,' are the acts of sacrifice, gift and austerity as enjoined in the ordinances, always begun by the followers of the Vedas. 25. Uttering Tat, without aiming at fruits, are the various acts of Yajna, austerity and gift performed by the seekers of Moksha. 26. The word Sat is used in the sense of reality and of goodness; and so also, Pârtha, the word Sat is used in the sense of an auspicious act. 27. Steadiness in Yajna, austerity and gift is also called 'Sat': as also action in connection with these (or, action for the sake of the Lord) is called Sat. 28. Whatever is sacrificed, given or performed, and whatever austerity is practised without Shraddhâ, it is called Asat, O Pârtha; it is naught here or hereafter. 28   The end of the Seventh Chapter designated: The Enquiry into the Threefold Shraddha. 349:1 Setting . . . Shraddhâ: not that they believe the ordinance of the Shâstra to be false, but out of laziness or because of the difficulty in adhering to them strictly, they let them alone and worship the gods, endued with Shraddhâ. 350:2 Inherent . . . nature: born of their past Samskâras. It—the threefold Shraddhâ. 351:3 Natural disposition—the specific tendencies or Samskâras. 352:5 Austerities—which cause pain to himself and to other living beings. Possessed attachment—may also be interpreted as, 'possessed of lust, attachment and power.' All the organs of the body: the aggregate of all the elements composing the body. 354:9 Excessively—this word should be construed with each of the seven; thus, excessively bitter, excessively sour, and so on. 354:10 Stale—Yâtayâmam—lit. cooked three hours ago. Refuse: left on the plate after a meal. 357:15 Speech, to be an austerity, must form an invariable combination of all the four attributes mentioned in the Sloka; if it lacks in one or other of them, it will no longer be an austerity of speech. 357:16 Silence—Maunam—is the result of the control of thought so far as it concerns speech. Or it may mean, the condition of the Muni, i.e., practice of meditation. 358:17 Steadfast—unaffected in success and failure. 358:18 With ostentation: for mere show, hypocritically, with no sincere belief. Here—is explained also in the sense of 'of this world,' i.e., yielding fruit only in this world. 359:20 Who . . . return: one who cannot, or who though able is not expected to return the good. 360:23 Om, Tat, Sat: Om is the principal name of the Lord, because it means all that is manifest and the beyond. It also means "Yes." Tat means "That"; the Indefinable, that which can only be described indirectly as "That which." Sat means Reality; which is ever permanent in one mode of being. 363:28 It is naught here or hereafter: Though costing much trouble it is of no use here as it is not acceptable to the wise ones, nor can it produce any effect conducive to good hereafter.

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1 Enakshi Ganguly = ""At the end of the previous Chapter it was stated that he who discards the scriptural injunctions and acts according to the promptings of his desires cannot attain the highest knowledge. Arjuna had a doubt about the fate of those who worship with faith but who do not know the scriptures or are indifferent to their rules. For an average man it is difficult to be proficient in the knowledge of scriptural codes to guide his living although he has sufficient faith or Shraddhaa to lead a nobler way of life as enunciated in the scriptures. Hence this Chapter deals with the questions whether it is sufficient if one lives with faith for a life of good conduct or is it necessary that he must know the scriptures in order that his faith will be subservient to the injunctions laid down in the scriptures. In short, the question raised by Arjuna is whether even without the knowledge of the Sastras, blind faith alone can take the seeker far."Source: http://esamskriti.com/essays/BG-CH-17.pdf"
2 Enakshi Ganguly = ""Shraddhaa is that powerful force from within propelled by which all the faculties of a person act in their respective fields. It gives direction to a man's determination and endows him with character."Source: http://esamskriti.com/essays/BG-CH-17.pdf"
3 Enakshi Ganguly = "The Mind Types"
4 Enakshi Ganguly = "Source: http://www.yogirose.com/?p=147"
5 Enakshi Ganguly = ""Instead of giving a direct clarification to Arjuna’s doubts, Sri Krishna gives an analysis of the concept of `faith' as obtained in the various fields of man's endeavors viz. 1. his physical indulgence (Ahara) 2. his dedicated activities (Yagna) 3. his self-denial (Tapas) 4. his charity (Dana) He explains that faith is of three different types depending upon the nature of temperaments (Gunas) which an individual entertains in him. He concludes that the actions of those who are devoid of faith are as good as not done. Since three types of faith have been expounded in this chapter it is called “Yoga of the Division of the Threefold Faith”. "Source: http://esamskriti.com/essays/BG-CH-17.pdf"
6 Enakshi Ganguly = ""Now the real fact is that every living being, as is stated in the Fifteenth Chapter, is originally the fragmental part and parcel of the Supreme Lord. Therefore one is originally transcendental to all the modes of material nature. But when one forgets his relationship with the Supreme Personality of Godhead and comes into contact with the material nature in conditional life, he generates his own position by association with the different varieties of material nature. The resultant artificial faith and existence are only material. Although one may be conducted by some impression, or some conception of life, still, originally, he is nirguna,or transcendental. Therefore one has to become cleansed of the material contamination that he has acquired in order to regain his relationship with the Supreme Lord. That is the only path back without fear: Krsna consciousness. If one is situated in Krsna consciousness, then that path is guaranteed for his elevation to the perfectional stage. If one does not take to this path of self-realization, then he is surely to be conducted by the influence of the modes of nature. "Source: http://www.asitis.com/17/3.html"
7 Enakshi Ganguly = "One does not need to be one nature wholly. In fact, very rarely is this so. Most of the time, we are composed of all three modes of nature, and depending on our actions, thoughts, and behavior, we become inclined to be one or the other."
8 Enakshi Ganguly = ""Here a very direct answer is, to some extent, indicated. There is no use of saying, “I have a faith in this thing and, therefore, everything must be all right.” It need not be all right even if we have faith in it, because our faith may betamasic faith or rajasic faith. It may not necessarily be the voice of what is sometimes called the inner conscience, which many people resort to and say, “My conscience says that and, therefore, I shall do it.” The tiger also has a conscience, the snake has a conscience, the scorpion has a conscience, the cannibal has a conscience, and a saint has a conscience. Do we think all these consciences are the same? Hence, there is no use merely saying, “I have a conscience, and I shall act according to it.” Our conscience will work according to the characteristic of our nature. According to what kind of person we are, from that we can know what kind of faith we may develop and how our conscience works. Therefore, we should not simply say, “My conscience says.” One may have a demoniacal conscience and, therefore, merely saying “my conscience works” is not enough. Thus, to say that faith is predominant and, therefore, scripture is not necessary is also not a proper way of looking at things, because it all depends upon what kind of faith we are referring to—whether it is sattvic, rajasic or tamasic. Depending on the character, the behaviour, the substance, and the very essence of a person, accordingly thesraddha, or the faith, is to be judged."Source: http://www.swami-krishnananda.org/bgita/bgita_46.html"
9 Enakshi Ganguly = "Source: https://thesevenminds.wordpress.com/2013/12/01/trigunas-sattva-raja-tama/"
10 Enakshi Ganguly = "" Faith is not acceptance of a belief. It is striving after self- realization by concentrating the powers of the mind on a given ideal. It governs our view of life which in turn conditions our desires, thoughts and actions. It is the pressure of the Spirit on humanity. It is the force that urges humanity towards what is better, not only in the order of knowledge but in the whole order of spiritual life. The goals which religions offer prove effective according to one's faith in them. Hence an individual's physical activities, psychological behavior and intellectual maturity are controlled by the kind of faith entertained by him. If one's faith is of wrong type the expressions of his personality would also be erroneous. The word ‘shraddhaaa’ usually translated as ‘faith’ is not a mechanical belief or acceptance of the words of a holy man or a book. It is an affirmative and reverent attitude toward supersensuous truths. Through faith a man is intuitively convinced of the existence of the Reality underlying the universe and his capacity for realizing that Reality. It is not imposed from outside, but is produced by the tendencies that are the results of his past actions. The intensity of this faith accounts for the passion he pursues an undertaking. This faith is a man’s appeal to himself or to something present and compelling in him or in universal reality for his way to fullness and perfection. So a man is made of his faith; he is that faith and that faith is he. The truth he sees is determined for him by his faith. If a man’s innate tendencies are characterized by sattva, then his faith will direct him to the pursuit of knowledge and happiness. If they are characterized by rajas, then his faith will direct him to the pursuit of action ending in pain and suffering. If it is characterized by tamas, then his faith will lead him to ignorance and delusion."Source: http://esamskriti.com/essays/BG-CH-17.pdf"
11 Enakshi Ganguly = ""In this verse the Supreme Personality of Godhead describes different kinds of worshipers according to their external activities. According to scriptural injunction, only the Supreme Personality of Godhead is worshipable, but those who are not very conversant with, or faithful to, the scriptural injunctions worship different objects, according to their specific situations in the modes of material nature. Those who are situated in goodness generally worship the demigods. The demigods include Brahma, Siva and others such as Indra, Candra and the sun-god. There are various demigods. Those in goodness worship a particular demigod for a particular purpose. Similarly, those who are in the mode of passion worship the demons. We recall that during the Second World War, a man in Calcutta worshiped Hitler because thanks to that war he had amassed a large amount of wealth by dealing in the black market. Similarly, those in the modes of passion and ignorance generally select a powerful man to be God. They think that anyone can be worshiped as God and that the same results will be obtained. "Source: http://www.asitis.com/17/4.html"
12 Enakshi Ganguly = ""Now the Lord goes into details of the manner in which sattvic, rajasic andtamasic faiths operate. Sattvic people adore the gods in heaven. Ganesha, Devi, Durga, Lakshmi, Saraswati, Lord Siva, Vishnu, Narayana, Siva, Skanda are the gods whom they worship if their mind is sattvic. Nara-Narayana, Vyasa, Vasishtha—these are their adored beings. Yajante sāttvikā devān (17.4): Lofty transcendent realities are the objects of people who are sattvic in their nature.Yakṣarakṣāṁsi rājasāḥ: Rajasic people worship demoniacal, lower spirits which are likely to bless them with immediate results and then possess them and keep them under subjection. Yakshas, rakshasas and demigods are the objects of worship of people who are entirely rajasic, because they cannot wait for the blessings of a god in heaven. They want immediate results to follow, so they go to lesser divinities. But people with tamasic qualities worship actual demons—bhutas, pretas and spirits who hang in the air, working through Ouija boards and planchets, summoning dead people who speak through those who make this their profession. Pretān bhūtagaṇāñś cānye yajante tāmasā janāḥ: This is thetamasic way of living, where the lower spirits are considered as objects of adoration. Bhutas and pretas are their objects of worship."Source: http://www.swami-krishnananda.org/bgita/bgita_46.html"
13 Enakshi Ganguly = ""The wrong way of worshipping at an altar is described here. No spiritual enlightenment can be expected in wasting one's energy in wrong channels in the name of religion. Sri Krishna says that physical persecution of one's own body and self-denial would not constitute an austerity following which one would expect spiritual unfoldment and inner personality development. Some people undertake severe austerities merely as a show out of egoism and hypocrisy with a view to satisfy their lustful desires and attachment to worldly objects. Even if such people gain anything out of such austerities they will only misuse their new found strength for wrongful purposes and ultimately destroy themselves. These people belong to Asuric type. Such unintelligent practices oppress the bodily elements and also the Self or the Divine Lord within. Intelligent control is Tapas but not cruel self-torture."Source: http://esamskriti.com/essays/BG-CH-17.pdf"
14 Enakshi Ganguly = "In the Hindu comic books, Amar Chitra Katha, oftentimes there were Asuras who were depicted praying, devoting themselves to, and meditating upon the Gods. They always wanted something in order to achieve a crueler end. No matter, a God would always come to him or her and grant them a boon. God gives us the freedom to even pray in an unholy manner; Even if we ask for things that will lead to unhappiness, we get them because we must learn for ourselves what is right and what is wrong. God will not hold our hand, but surely, God can teach us along the way."
15 Enakshi Ganguly = ""The Anabhimian scripture states that those unfortunate jivas or embodied beings who oppress and chastise the Resplendent Supreme Lord who dwells within as Paramatma the supreme soul which resides within the etheric heart of every living entity in existence are of miniscule consciousness with meager perception. Thus without the vision of perception they oppress Him within their hearts and the hearts of others. The word asura means without light and is in general referred to those of the demoniac nature. Those who are void of light are void of light perception and also void of the light of perceptivity. The Agniveshya scripture states that those endowed with the divine nature are exclusively in sattva guna or the mode of goodness and study the Vedic scriptures and are receptive to Lord Krishna. While those that are of the demoniac nature are a combination of raja guna or mode of passion and tama guna or mode of ignorance and they never study the Vedic scriptures and even if by chance they get an opportunity to hear from them they cannot fathom the values contained therein because they are inimical to the Supreme Lord."Source: http://www.bhagavad-gita.org/Gita/verse-17-05.html"
16 Enakshi Ganguly = ""The temperamental influences which govern the mind, thought and actions of a man are enumerated here. The Lord analyses one's inward nature and consequent outward expressions when one is under the influence of any one particular Guna. The choice of food, friends, and types of emotions entertained and the view of life in general are all indicative of the type to which the seeker belongs. In the choice of one's food, in the type of sacrifices one will make, in the kind of Tapas one will indulge and in the quality of charity one will make, any one of the three types of faith can be discernible."Source: http://esamskriti.com/essays/BG-CH-17.pdf"
17 Enakshi Ganguly = "The idiom, birds of a feather, flock together, is truy what Krishna is saying. Your choice in friends are a direct reflection on who you are, so be aware on who you ally yourselves with. "
18 Enakshi Ganguly = "" The purpose of food is to increase the duration of life, purify the mind and aid bodily strength. This is its only purpose. In the past, great authorities selected those foods that best aid health and increase life's duration, such as milk products, sugar, rice, wheat, fruits and vegetables. These foods are very dear to those in the mode of goodness. Some other foods, such as baked corn and molasses, while not very palatable in themselves, can be made pleasant when mixed with milk or other foods. They are then in the mode of goodness. All these foods are pure by nature. They are quite distinct from untouchable things like meat and liquor. Fatty foods, as mentioned in the eighth verse, have no connection with animal fat obtained by slaughter. Animal fat is available in the form of milk, which is the most wonderful of all foods. Milk, butter, cheese and similar products give animal fat in a form which rules out any need for the killing of innocent creatures. It is only through brute mentality that this killing goes on. The civilized method of obtaining needed fat is by milk. Slaughter is the way of subhumans. Protein is amply available through split peas, dal, whole wheat, etc. "Source: http://www.asitis.com/17/8-10.html"
19 Enakshi Ganguly = ""You are what you eat." Which is true! Your personality, what you are attached to and what you are distant from is directly represented in your palate. It is important then to take care to balance your diet, and reflect on how what you consume affects you. "
20 Enakshi Ganguly = ""That kind of food which energises the system, which contributes to the enhancement of life, which increases strength in the body, which ensures health, which is delighting to the taste and enjoyable at all times, which is full of delicacy and the heart opens up, as it were, when we eat such food—that food is sattvic. Ᾱyuḥ sattva balārogya sukha prīti vivar-dhanāḥ, rasyāḥ snigdhāḥ sthirā hṛdyā āhārāḥ sāttvikapriyāḥ (17.8): A sattvic diet is that which delights us by even thinking of it, delights us when we actually take it, and delights us even after we have taken it. An alcoholic drink may delight us in the beginning, but it will lead us to sorrow afterwards. But a sattvic diet will be delightful in the beginning, in the middle, as well as in the end."Source: http://www.swami-krishnananda.org/bgita/bgita_46.html"
21 Enakshi Ganguly = ""Whatever a person eats, his or her personal deity eats the same (VR 2.104.15, See also Gita 8.24). (Because) I am Thou, and Thou art I (BS 3.3.37). The food we eat becomes divided into three con­stituents. The grossest part turns into feces; the medium component be­comes flesh, blood, marrow, and bone. Semen, the subtlest part, rises upward and nourishes the brain and subtle organs of the body by unit­ing with the vital force (ChU 6.05.01-6.06.02). Food is called the root of the body-tree. A healthy body and mind are the prerequisites for success in spiritual life. The mind will be healthy if the body is healthy. Persons in the mode of goodness like vegetarian foods. One can also become a noble person by taking vegetarian food because one be­comes what one eats."Source: http://www.gita-society.com/bhagavadgita_englishch17.html"
22 Enakshi Ganguly = "" “Annau vai manah” meaning “What we eat, makes the emphasis of the mind.” Similar views are expressed in the texts dealing with spiritual sadhanas. Ayurveda emphasizes on purity and subtle properties of foods and cautions us about what to eat and what not to eat with discrimination and the wisdom of science behind the what and why. Our mental and emotional state while eating, the feelings with which we take our food, all have subliminal but intense impact upon our subtle and astral bodies. Food should be treated as sacred as the naivaidya or consecrated “food” offered to a deity. The tradition of sitting with clean body and calm mind and chanting specific mantras before having meals comes from this."Source: https://trueayurveda.wordpress.com/2014/09/30/healthy-habits-in-ayurveda-6/"
23 Enakshi Ganguly = ""Rajasic men to fulfill their uncontrolled passions desire food that has strong qualities like bitterness, sourness, hot, pungent etc. Although such food produces good amount of energy ultimately it leads to a life full of pain, grief and disease."Source: http://esamskriti.com/essays/BG-CH-17.pdf"
24 Enakshi Ganguly = ""The general tendency is to offer sacrifice with some purpose in mind, but here it is stated that sacrifice should be performed without any such desire. It should be done as a matter of duty. Take, for example, the performance of rituals in temples or in churches. Generally they are performed with the purpose of material benefit, but that is not in the mode of goodness. One should go to a temple or church as a matter of duty, offer respect to the Supreme Personality of Godhead and offer flowers and eatables. Everyone thinks that there is no use in going to the temple just to worship God. But worship for economic benefit is not recommended in the scriptural injunctions. One should go simply to offer respect to the Deity. That will place one in the mode of goodness. It is the duty of every civilized man to obey the injunctions of the scriptures and offer respect to the Supreme Personality of Godhead."Source: http://www.asitis.com/17/11.html"
25 Enakshi Ganguly = ""“The Yajna of the Gita is not the same as the ceremonial sacrifice of the Vedas. It is sacrificial action without expectation of any reward by which man dedicates his wealth and deeds to the service of the One Life in all. People with such a sacrificial spirit will accept even death gladly, though unjustly meted out to them so that the world may grow through their sacrifice. Good people maintain the world through their suffering and sacrifice”. Dr.S.Radhakrishnan."Source: http://esamskriti.com/essays/BG-CH-17.pdf"
26 Enakshi Ganguly = ""That yagna or propitiation and worship which externally may be performed according to the Vedic scriptures but internally is plagued with desires to acquire the fruits of its rewards and is ostentatiously enacted out of pride and gregariously carried out for prestige is irascibly performed in the mode of passion."Source: http://www.bhagavad-gita.org/Gita/verse-17-09.html"
27 Enakshi Ganguly = ""An example is a person who employs a pandit—a yajamana who engages a saint or a purohita for the performance of a worship—and does not properly respect him, does not give him his due, and he concentrates only on what he will get out of it, and not on the pleasure of the gods or the satisfaction of the deity whom he is invoking through the sacrifice. And he is faithless; inwardly, he has no faith in the very performance itself. “If something comes, well and good; and if nothing comes, that is also all right. I will pray to God, if God is there. If He doesn’t exist, that’s not a loss to me. O God, if there is a God, come and help me.” O God, if there is a God. If God is not there, we do not lose anything by the utterance of a few words.Faithless performance is tamasic performance. When our heart is not in a thing, we are also not in that thing. Where our heart is, there we are; and if we ourselves are not there, what is the good of doing anything?"Source: http://www.swami-krishnananda.org/bgita/bgita_46.html"
28 Enakshi Ganguly = ""Now in order to introduce the threefold divisions of austerities Lord Krishna commences with austerities which can be performed by the physical body, verbal speech as well as the mind. The worship of the Supreme Lord Krishna the origin of all creation and any of His authorised incarnations and expansions as revealed in Vedic scriptures who each far excels every other god imaginable such as Brahma and Shiva, as well as far excelling all other gods of other conceptions collectively combined are pre-eminent austerities in sattva guna the mode of goodness. Worship of the Vaisnavas and brahmanas, worship of the diksa guru the initiating spiritual master and the siksa guru the instructing spiritual master, who dispel the darkness of ignorance by revealing the eternal, spiritual truths applicable to all existences in all times and external and internal cleanliness are all in sattva guna the mode of goodness.Arjavam is acting without duplicity in thought, word or deed.Brahmacaryam is celibacy which is abstinence from all sexual activities. The Agni Purana: CCCLXX.IX.XI specifically refers to the eightfold forms of celibacy which is abstinence from all sexual activity and includes: thinking about it, talking about it, suggestively insinuating it, watching others engaging in it, affirming desire for it, wooing another for it, meeting in private for it and finally engaging oneself in it. Ahimsa is non-violence to any creature by thought, word and deed. The particle ca stands to include non-cheating and non- stealing. etc. All these activities are situated in sattva guna the mode of goodness."Source: http://www.bhagavad-gita.org/Gita/verse-17-11.html"
29 Enakshi Ganguly = ""One should not speak in such a way as to agitate the minds of others. Of course, when a teacher speaks, he can speak the truth for the instruction of his students, but such a teacher should not speak to others who are not his students if he will agitate their minds. This is penance as far as talking is concerned. Besides that, one should not talk nonsense. When speaking in spiritual circles, one's statements must be upheld by the scriptures. One should at once quote from scriptural authority to back up what he is saying. At the same time, such talk should be very pleasurable to the ear. By such discussions, one may derive the highest benefit and elevate human society. There is a limitless stock of Vedic literature, and one should study this. This is called penance of speech."Source: http://www.asitis.com/17/15.html"
30 Enakshi Ganguly = ""To make the mind austere is to detach it from sense gratification. It should be so trained that it can be always thinking of doing good for others. The best training for the mind is gravity in thought. One should not deviate from Krsna consciousness and must always avoid sense gratification. To purify one's nature is to become Krsna conscious. Satisfaction of the mind can be obtained only by taking the mind away from thoughts of sense enjoyment. The more we think of sense enjoyment, the more the mind becomes dissatisfied. In the present age we unnecessarily engage the mind in so many different ways for sense gratification, and so there is no possibility of the mind's becoming satisfied. The best course is to divert the mind to the Vedic literature, which is full of satisfying stories, as in the Puranas and the Mahabharata. One can take advantage of this knowledge and thus become purified. The mind should be devoid of duplicity, and one should think of the welfare of all. Silence means that one is always thinking of self-realization. The person in Krsna consciousness observes perfect silence in this sense. Control of the mind means detaching the mind from sense enjoyment. One should be straightforward in his dealings and thereby purify his existence. All these qualities together constitute austerity in mental activities."Source: http://www.asitis.com/17/16.html"
31 Enakshi Ganguly = ""The five noble values of life mentioned in verse 16 constitute austerity of the mind. They are: Serenity of mind - this is the result of one's healthy relationship with the world outsideKindness or good heartedness - a feeling of warmth towards allSilence - this is not only non-speaking but an inward noiseless calm wherein no passions and desires are generatedSelf control - controlling of lower nature within us Purity of nature or honesty of motive - the motivating factor for any action should be noble and divine.  These three verses depict the picture of what are true Tapas. Tapas pursued by people of different Gunas give different results. In the following verses the different kinds of Tapas based on the different Gunas of the Tapaswins are discussed."Source: http://esamskriti.com/essays/BG-CH-17.pdf"
32 Enakshi Ganguly = ""The word saumyatvam means tranquility, gentleness. Maunya means the silence of reflecting internally as opposed to projecting externally. After achieving eligibility and qualification by spiritual knowledge from ever reflecting one is called a muni which is derived from the word maunya. The Balava scripture states: By the power of a muni's meditation reality is reflected and his realizations are reflected upon reality. Otherwise it would not be possible for a person to perform penance within the mind.Now begins the summation....They are those who were born in tama guna the mode of ignorance and performed degraded activities from the very beginning or may have started their lives situated insattva guna or the mode of goodness but later due to bad association unfortunately degraded into raja guna the mode of passion and tama guna and performed depraved activities. Others perform activities not in harmony with their natures and after some time they fall back into their old habits. Performance of activities in harmony with one's natural attributes and nature gives the best results. Performing activities not in accordance with one's natural attributes and contrary to one's nature gives inferior results. That which gives the best results should be understood as being the natural attributes of a jiva and this will reflect in the inherent attributes one possesses."Source: http://www.bhagavad-gita.org/Gita/verse-17-13.html"
33 Enakshi Ganguly = ""We should not speak unless it is necessary to speak. Where it is necessary to speak, we speak. Where it is not called for on our behalf to speak, we do not speak. There are people who butt in. If two people are speaking, a third man comes and butts in, and says something else and spoils the entire talk. We should not interfere. We should not speak at all unless it is obligatory on our part to speak at a given moment. It is necessary for us to speak at this moment; therefore, we speak. When speaking is unwarranted and we can keep quiet, we should hold our tongue, and maintain peace in our mind. That is maunam."Source: http://www.swami-krishnananda.org/bgita/bgita_46.html"
34 Enakshi Ganguly = ""Here Tapas or austerity means not merely a life of self-denial but an intelligent method of living in the right relationship with the world of objects thereby avoiding wastage of energies and utilizing such energy in creative fields of spiritual enquiry."Source: http://esamskriti.com/essays/BG-CH-17.pdf"
35 Enakshi Ganguly = ""These three types of austerities viz. of body, speech, and mind if practiced by men of harmonious nature with no attachment for their rewards and with utmost faith and sincerity are called Sattvic type. If these austerities are practiced with a view to gain respect, honor and reverence and with vanity and ostentation they are called Rajasic. Sri Krishna says that such a kind of Tapas is unstable and transitory which will only result in unproductive and painful self denials. Tapas undertaken with a foolish obstinacy involving self torture and not knowing its aim and indulging in destroying others is of the lowest kind. These misconceived, wrongly practiced austerities undertaken by anyone for bringing about sorrow and discomfort to others and to himself is considered as Tamasic."Source: http://esamskriti.com/essays/BG-CH-17.pdf"
36 Enakshi Ganguly = ""The words aphala-akanksibhih means those who have no desire for rewards. Those devout and evolved jivas or embodied beings with ardent faith, who are imbued with the consciousness that all their actions are humble offerings of worship rendered to the Supreme Lord Krishna or any of His authorized incarnations and expansions as revealed in Vedic scriptures; performing the three aforementioned types of austerity of the physical body, speech and mind are known to be in sattva guna the mode of goodness."Source: http://www.bhagavad-gita.org/Gita/verse-17-14.html"
37 Enakshi Ganguly = ""Lord Krishna describes the austerities that are situated in raja guna the mode of passion are those that are enacted with the expectance of praise, prestige, acclaim and with the hope of receiving adulation and adoration from others is in raja gunaalong with any Vedic activity that is impelled by hidden motives of garnishing rewards or desire for recognition and worship from others even if enacted according to the Vedic scriptures."Source: http://www.bhagavad-gita.org/Gita/verse-17-15.html"
38 Enakshi Ganguly = "Again, the idea is to act or give without expectation. For example, if i give lunch to a homeless man i would not expect that tomorrow he will give me lunch. If i do, then my actions are only self-interested. Another example, i would not be friends with someone in order to get something in return (whether that is tangible or not) because then it would mean i came into this friendship with a selfish intent rather than a pure one."
39 Enakshi Ganguly = "Not only does this imply selfishness, it leads to unhappiness. If I were to perform prayers and rituals every day for the rest of my life in order to attain something (even if that is a higher spirituality), i would become disappointed and hurt. Perhaps i would fall out of my faith or perhaps i would be convinced that God does not care for me. In reality, my intentions are not pure to begin with, they desire something and thus they act. this is the root cause of unhappiness, because we're constantly acting, while expecting in return. In truth, no one, especially God, owes us anything."
40 Enakshi Ganguly = ""Charity is the best and the only use of wealth, next to it is personal enjoyment, but in the end wealth just is left after death and of no use to the wealthy here or hereafter. However, all genuine requests for charity should be handled with delicate care and diplomacy because charity denied may create a negative feeling that is harmful.Charity has no value if the money is earned by wrongful means (MB 5.39.66). To obtain wealth for meritorious or charitable deeds using wrong means is like soiling one’s dress and then washing it. Not to soil the dress in the first place is better than washing the dress after soiling (MB 3.02.49). You cannot accomplish a worthy end with unworthy means. Ends and means are absolutely inseparable (Stephen Covey). It is not possible to help everybody by giving material goods and money. To pray for the physi­cal and spiritual welfare of others in trouble or need---including ones not on your favorite list---is called mental charity."Source: http://www.gita-society.com/bhagavadgita_englishch17.html"
41 Enakshi Ganguly = "Gifts that are given without care, offhandedly, and without deliberation is seen to be not really an offering at all."
42 Enakshi Ganguly = "Meaning of "Om Tat Sat""
43 Enakshi Ganguly = "Christianity + Hinduism"
44 Enakshi Ganguly = "Hari Om Tat Sat"
45 Enakshi Ganguly = "Source: http://www.hindunet.org/srh_home/1996_5/msg00108.html"The three words om tat sat are uttered in conjunction with the holy name of the Supreme Lord, e.g., om tad visnoh. Whenever a Vedic hymn or the holy name of the Supreme Lord is uttered, om is added. This is the indication of Vedic literature. These three words are taken from Vedic hymns. Om ity etad brahmano nedistham nama (Rg Veda) indicates the first goal. Then tat tvam asi (Chandogya Upanisad 6.8.7) indicates the second goal. And sad eva saumya (Chandogya Upanisad 6.2.1) indicates the third goal. Combined they become om tat sat. Formerly when Brahma, the first created living entity, performed sacrifices, he indicated by these three words the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore the same principle has always been followed by disciplic succession. So this hymn has great significance. Bhagavad-gita recommends, therefore, that any work done should be done for om tat sat, or for the Supreme Personality of Godhead.""
46 Enakshi Ganguly = ""`OM' represents the Transcendental and the Pure Self, Absolute and Unborn which is the substratum upon which the projections of the body, mind and intellect are maintained. `Tat' indicates the Eternal Goal, the Changeless and the Ever-Perfect, that from which everything has come, in which everything exists and into which everything merges back in the end. `Sat' means existence, the principle functioning through all things. Invoking this sentence purifies all our activities and motives behind them. When invoked in ritualism it removes all defects in the worship, it being the name for Brahman."Source: http://esamskriti.com/essays/BG-CH-17.pdf"
47 Enakshi Ganguly = ""
48 Enakshi Ganguly = ""OM TAT SAT is renowned by the spiritually cognizant as the three fold manifestation of thebrahman the spiritual substratum that pervades all existence representing potencies of the Supreme Lord Krishna. This is well established from the Vedic scriptures such as Taittiriya Upanisad I:VIII:I beginning om iti brahman om iti sarvam states: OM is synonymous with the Brahman.OM is understood to be the vibratory cause and spiritual substance of existence. OM is the transcendental sound vibration chanted before commencing every Vedic activity. TAT also is synonymous with thebrahman as it signifies infallible, perfection and auspiciousness. SAT is as well synonymous with the brahman for it denotes the ultimate reality containing all realities. These three designations OM TAT SAT are profusely praised to exemplify that the have the potency to redeem and rectify any defects made while performing yagnas or acts of propitiation and worship to the Supreme Lord Krishna or any of His incarnations and expansions as revealed in Vedic scriptures. These threefold designations were manifested by the Supreme Lord to represent the Brahmanas, the Vedas and Vedic yagnas. OM represented the Brahmanas, TAT represents the Vedic scriptures and SAT represents the performance of Vedic yagnas for the satisfaction of the Supreme Lord. Therefore the three words OM TAT SAT are paramount in creation and eternally praiseworthy."Source: http://www.bhagavad-gita.org/Gita/verse-17-20.html"
49 Enakshi Ganguly = ""Om is specially regarded as a symbolic expression which embodies in itself the total process of sound production. All the letters of the alphabet, when they are uttered, create a vibration in the vocal cords. The sound box operates in some way when one letter is uttered, and in another way when another letter is uttered; and there are varieties of operations of the vocal system when different letters are uttered. But when Om is chanted, the entire sound box vibrates—Aaaaauuuummm. This process originates from the deepest beginning of the process of sound and ends with just a rarefied form of the sound ‘m’, which merges into a soundless, ethereal, pervading something. This total sound vibration goes beyond the process of sound production and becomes an intangible super-sensory force. In this kind of Omkara, the transcendent aspect and the Sat aspect are clubbed together."Source: http://www.swami-krishnananda.org/bgita/bgita_47.html"
50 Enakshi Ganguly = ""Sat is the third symbol, which signifies goodness. We say satsanga, sant, saint, mahatma, which all come from the word ‘Sat’. Sacchabdaḥ pārtha yujyate: Whenever there is something good or saintly, we call that Sat. Whenever there is something auspicious, then also we use the word Sat in regard to that auspicious beginning. The words yajna, danaand tapah—sacrifice, austerity and charity—are repeated again and again, but they become stable and meaningful, and bear the requisite fruit, only when they are associated with Sat, or Pure Existence. All the activities that we perform for the sake of fulfilling yajna, dana and tapas—karma caiva tadarthīyaṁ—anything that we do for the welfare of our own self as well as that of others, for the fulfilment of our spiritual aspirations, all come under Sat, or immense goodness."Source: http://www.swami-krishnananda.org/bgita/bgita_47.html"
51 Enakshi Ganguly = ""Thus, the threefold definition of Brahman—Om Tat Sat—means God here, God above and God below, and God everywhere. The everywhereness of God includes the aboveness and the hereness of God. The aboveness is Tat, the hereness is Sat, and the everywhereness is Om. Therefore, Om Tat Sat is a complete mystical symbol which was evolved by ancient Masters. This is why in all auspicious beginnings, Om is chanted; and when we conclude anything, we say Om Tat Sat, dedicating the performance to the Almighty."Source: http://www.swami-krishnananda.org/bgita/bgita_47.html"