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Treatise II. On The Sabbatical Year Chapter II, The Talmud

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The Talmud, by Joseph Barclay, [1878] 1. "How long may men plough in a white 1 field on the eve of the Sabbatical year?" "Till the productiveness ceases; so long as men usually plough to plant cucumbers and gourds." said R. Simon, "thou hast put the law in every man's hand. But men may plough in a grain field till the Passover, and in a field of trees till Pentecost." 2. Men may dung and dig amongst cucumbers and gourds till new year's day, and they may also do so in a parched-up field. They may prune them, remove their leaves, cover them with earth, and fumigate them, till new year's day. R. Simon said, "one may even remove the leaf from the bunch of grapes in the Sabbatical year." 3. Men may remove stones till new year's day. They may gather the ears, they may break off branches, they may cut off the withered part till new year's day. R. Joshua said, "as they may break off branches and cut off the withered part of the fifth year, so also they may do it in the sixth year." Rabbi Simon said, "every time I am permitted to work amongst the trees, I am permitted to cut off the withered part." 4. Men may smear the saplings, and bind them, and cut them down, and make sheds for them, and water them, till new year's day. R. Eleazar, the son of Zadok, said, "one may even water the top of the branch in the Sabbatical year, but not the root." 5. Men may anoint unripe fruits, and puncture 2 them, till new year's day. Unripe fruit of the eve of the Sabbatical year which is just entering on the Sabbatical year, and unripe fruit of the Sabbatical year which is proceeding to the close of the Sabbatical year, they may neither anoint nor puncture. Rabbi Jehudah said, "the place where it is customary to anoint them, they may not anoint them, because that is work. The place where it is not customary to anoint them, they may anoint them." R. Simon "permitted it in trees because it is allowable in the usual culture of the trees." 6. Men may not plant trees, make layers, or engraft them, on the eve of the Sabbatical year, less than thirty days before new year's day. And if one plant them, or make layers, or engraft them, they must be rooted out. Rabbi Judah said, "every graft which does not cohere in three days has no more cohesion." Rabbi José and R. Simon said "in two weeks." 7. Rice, and millet, and poppy, and simsim, 1 which have taken root before new year's day, must be tithed for the past year, and are allowed for use in the Sabbatical year; otherwise they are forbidden in the Sabbatical year, and must pay tithes for the following year. 8. R. Simon of Shezur said, "Egyptian beans which are sown at first for seed are reckoned like them." R. Simon said, "the large lentils are reckoned like them." R. Eliezer said, "the large lentils which put forth pods before New Year's day are also reckoned like them." 9. "Onions, not for seed, and Egyptian beans, from which water is withheld thirty days before new year's day, must pay tithes for the past year, and they are allowed for use in the Sabbatical year. Otherwise they are forbidden in the Sabbatical year, and must be tithed for the coming year, and so also (the produce) of a rain-field 2 from which the water of irrigation is withheld on two occasions." The words of R. Maier. But the Sages say "three." 10. "The gourds which stand over for seed?" "If they dry up before new year's day and are unfit for human food, it is lawful to let them remain on the Sabbatical year. Otherwise it is forbidden to let them stand over on the Sabbatical year. Their buds are forbidden in the Sabbatical year. But they may be sprinkled with white dust." 3 The words of R. Simon. Rabbi Eliezer, the son of Jacob, [paragraph continues] "forbade them." Men may irrigate rice in the Sabbatical year. Rabbi Simon said, "but they must not cut its leaves." 64:1 Grain or corn field. 64:2 With a pointed instrument covered with oil. 65:1 Linseed (?). 65:2 Rain-field means a field irrigated with rain water. 65:3 Some suppose the meaning to be, the permission to sprinkle with water a "white" or corn field in which the gourds are growing.

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1 Ahmed M = "Pentecost is the Greek name for the Feast of Weeks, a prominent feast in the calendar of ancient Israel celebrating the giving of the Law on Sinai."
2 Ahmed M = "This feast is still celebrated in Judaism as Shavuot. Later, in the Christian liturgical year, it became a feast commemorating the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles and other followers of Jesus Christ "
3 Ahmed M = "Zadok was a priest descended from Eleazar the son of Aaron. He aided King David during the revolt of his son Absalom, and was consequently instrumental in bringing King Solomon to the throne."