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Treatise II. On The Sabbatical Year Chapter IIi, The Talmud

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The Talmud, by Joseph Barclay, [1878] 1. How long may men bring out dung to the heap?" "Till the time comes for stopping work." The words of R. Maier. R. Judah said, "till its fertility 1 dry out." R. José said, "till it hardens into a lump." 2. "How much may men manure?" "As much as three times three heaps for fifty cubits square of ten times ten ass panniers, each containing a letech. 2 They may increase the panniers, but they must not increase the heaps." Rabbi Simon said "also the heaps." 3. A man may make for his field three times three heaps to the fifty cubits square. "For more than these he must excavate the earth." The words of R. Simon. But the Sages "forbid it, till he sink the heaps three handbreadths, or till he raise them three above the earth." A man may keep his manure in store. Rabbi Maier "forbade it till he sink it three handbreadths, or till he raise it three." If he have only a little, he may increase it and proceed in his work. Rabbi Eleazar, the son of Azariah, "forbade it till he sink the manure three handbreadths, or raise it three, or till he place it on a rock." 4. "He who stables his cattle in his field?" "He may make a pen twice fifty cubits square. He may remove three sides and leave the middle one. It follows that he has a stable four times fifty cubits square." Rabbi Simon, the son of Gamaliel, said "eight times fifty cubits square." "If his whole field were four times fifty square cubits?" "He should leave a little space because of the observant eye, and he may remove the manure of his cattle from the pen and put it into the middle of his field, as men usually manure." 5. A man may not open a quarry in the beginning of the Sabbatical year in his field, unless there be already in it three heaps of stones measuring three cubits by three cubits, and in height three cubits, counting twenty-seven stones in each heap. 6. A fence composed of ten stones each, of weight sufficient for two men, may be removed. "If the fence measure ten handbreadths?" "Less than this he may clear off; but he must leave it a handbreadth high over the ground." These words only speak of his own field. But from his neighbour's field he may take away what he pleases. These words speak of the time when one did not begin the work on the eve of the Sabbatical year? "But if one begin on the eve of the Sabbatical year?" "He may take away what he pleases." 7. Stones shaken by the plough, or those covered and afterwards exposed, if there be amongst them two of a burden for two men, may be removed. He who removes stones from his field may remove the upper (ones), 1 but he must leave those touching the earth. And so also from a heap of rubbish, or a heap of stones, one may take away the upper part, but must leave that which touches 2 the earth. If there be beneath them a rock, or stubble, they may be removed. 8. Men must not build terraces on the face of the hills on the eve of the Sabbatical year, when the rains have ceased, because that is preparation for the Sabbatical year. But one may build them in the Sabbatical year, when the rains have ceased, because that is preparation for the close of the Sabbatical year. And men must not strengthen them with mortar, but they may make a slight wall. Every stone which they can reach 3 with their hands and remove, they may remove. 9. "Shoulder stones may come from every place, and the contractor may bring them from every place. And these are shoulder stones, every one which cannot be carried in one hand." The words of R. Maier. Rabbi José said, "shoulder stones, commonly so named, all that can be carried, two, three, upon the shoulder." 10. He who builds a fence between his own and public property may sink it down to the rock. "What shall he do with the dust?" "He may heap it up on the public property, and benefit it." The words of R. Joshua. R. Akiba said, "as we have no right to injure public property, so we have no right to benefit it." "What shall he do with the dust?" "He may heap it up in his own field like manure, and so also when he digs a well, or a cistern, or a cave." 66:1 The word translated "fertility" means literally "sweetness." Some apply these words to the dung out of which the moisture has "dried out," and it is then only reckoned as earth. Others apply them to the ground which has lost its fertility (sweetness) for want of rain (Job. xxi. 33). The meaning is that no advantage must be gained from it in the approaching Sabbatical year. 66:2 About 36½ gallons. 67:1 i.e. Stones lying on the top of other stones. 67:2 The removal of stones "touching" the earth might loosen it, and become a kind of cultivation. 67:3 i.e. From the outside of the boundary wall, as in like manner his ears of corn might be plucked. An answer to envious remarks that he was preparing for cultivation (Jer. Tal.)

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1 Ahmed M = "Azariah is a common name in Hebrew, and especially in the families of the priests of the line of Eleazar."
2 Ahmed M = "Gamaliel the Elder or Rabban Gamaliel I, was a leading authority in the Sanhedrin in the early 1st century CE."
3 Ahmed M = "In the Christian tradition, Gamaliel is celebrated as a Pharisee doctor of Jewish Law."