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Treatise II. On The Sabbatical Year Chapter V, The Talmud

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The Talmud, by Joseph Barclay, [1878] 1. The Sabbatical year of white figs 3 is the second after the Sabbatical year, because they produce in three years. Rabbi Judah said, "the Sabbatical year of the Persian figs is the close of the Sabbatical year, because they produce in two years." The Sages replied to him, "they only said white figs." 2. "If one store eschalots in the Sabbatical year?" R. Maier said, "there must be not less than two seahs, 1 in height three handbreadths, and over them an handbreadth of dust." But the Sages say, "not less than four cabs, in height an handbreadth, and an handbreadth of dust over them, and they must be stored in a place where men tread." 2 3. "Eschalots over which the Sabbatical year has passed?" Rabbi Eleazar said, "if the poor have gathered the leaves they are theirs; but if not, the owner must reckon with the poor." R. Joshua said, "if the poor have gathered the leaves, they are theirs; but if not, the poor cannot reckon with the owner." 4. "Eschalots of the eve of the Sabbatical year which have entered on the Sabbatical year, and summer onions, and also dye 3 plants of the best ground?" The school of Shammai say, "they are to be rooted out with wooden spades." But the school of Hillel say, "with metal axes." But they both agree with regard to dye plants on rocky ground, that they are to be rooted out with metal axes. 5. "From what time is it allowed to buy eschalots on the departure of the Sabbatical year?" R. Judah said, "off hand;" but the Sages say, "when the new ones become plenty." 6. These are the implements which the farmer is not permitted to sell in the Sabbatical year—the plough with all its implements, the yoke, the shovel, and the goad. But he may sell the hand-sickle, and the harvest-sickle, and the waggon, with all its implements. This is the rule: "all implements, the use of which may be misapplied for transgression, are forbidden; but if they be (partly for things) forbidden and (partly for things) allowed, they are permitted." 7. The potter may sell five oil-jugs, and fifteen wine- jugs, because it is usual to collect fruits from the free property. And if one bring more than these, it is allowed, and he may sell them to idolaters in the land, and to Israelites out of the land. 8. The school of Shammai say, "a man must not sell a ploughing heifer on the Sabbatical year;" but the school of Hillel allow it, "because the buyer may slaughter her." He may sell fruits in the time of sowing, and may lend another man his measure, even if he know that the other man have a threshing-floor, and he may change money for him, even if he know that he have labourers. But if it be openly declared, all is forbidden. 9. A woman may lend to her companion on the Sabbatical year, even when she is suspicious, a flour-sieve or a grain-sieve, and an hand-mill and an oven; but she is neither to pick the wheat nor grind it with her. A woman of a special religious society may lend to the wife 1 of an ordinary man a flour-sieve, or a grain-sieve, and may pick wheat, or grind it, or sift it, with her. But when she (the wife of an ordinary man) pours in the water, she (a woman of a special religious society) must not touch the flour (to knead it) with her, lest she strengthen the hands of a transgressor. And all these things were not said save for the sake of peace. And we may strengthen the hands of idolaters in the Sabbatical year, but not the hands of Israel; and in salutation we may ask after their peace, for the sake of peace. 70:3 Lit. "daughters of the pit." "Adam's apples," (Jer. Tal.) Supposed to be the fruit which tempted Eve. The decision in the text assumes that the trees began to bud in the Sabbatical year, and that the fruit would not be ripe for three years. 71:1 Twelve cabs. 71:2 To prevent their growth. 71:3 "Puah, for dyeing red" (?) 72:1 This permission has reference to certain laws with regard to legal cleanness.

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1 Ahmed M = "A sabbatical year is year of rest, usually the seventh year, like the shabbat, which is seventh day of the week"
2 Ahmed M = "Figs is the deciduous Old World tree or shrub which bears figs."
3 Ahmed M = "Shammai was a Jewish scholar of the 1st century, and an important figure in Judaism's core work of rabbinic literature, the Mishnah."