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Treatise II. On The Sabbatical Year Chapter VIII, The Talmud

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The Talmud, by Joseph Barclay, [1878] 1. The Sages stated an important rule for the Sabbatical year:—"of all that is only fit for man's food a plaster may not be made for man, and it is needless to say for beast. And of all that is not fit for man's food a plaster may be made for man, but not for beast." And all that is not fit either for man's food or beast's food, if one consider it as food for man or food for beast, the Sages impose on it the inconveniences of the laws relating to man and the inconveniences of the laws relating to beast. If one, however, consider it as wood, it is reckoned as wood; for example, the savory and the hyssop and the laurel. 2. Produce of the Sabbatical year is given for food, for drink, and for anointing, to eat the thing which it is usual to eat, and to anoint with what it is usual to anoint with. One may not anoint with wine or vinegar. But one may anoint with oil. And so is it likewise with the heave-offering and second tithe. The laws of the Sabbatical year are more convenient for them, because it is permitted to light a candle made from them. 3. Men must not sell the fruits of the Sabbatical year, neither by measure, nor by weight, nor by count. Neither may they sell figs by counting, nor greens by weight. The school of Shammai say, "nor in bunches." But the school of Hillel say, "that which it is usual to make in bunches in the house men may make in bunches in the market; for example, cresses and the milk flower." 4. If one said to a labourer, "here! take this aisar 1 and gather greens for me to-day?" "His hire is allowed." "Gather me for it greens to-day?" "His hire is forbidden." If one take from the baker a cake for a pundion 2 (saying), "when I will gather greens of the field I will bring them to you?" "It is allowed." "If one take bread from the baker in silence?" "He must not pay him from money of the Sabbatical year, because men must not pay a debt with money of the Sabbatical year." 5. Men must not give money of the Sabbatical year to a well-digger, nor to a bath-keeper, nor to a barber, nor to a skipper, but one may give it to a well-digger for drink, and to all persons one may give a gratuitous present. 6. Men may not dry figs of the Sabbatical year in the usual place, but one may dry them in a waste place. They must not tread grapes in a wine-press, but they may tread them in a kneading-trough. And they must not put olives into the oil-press with the stone over them, but they may pound them and put them into a small press. Rabbi Simon said, "one may also grind them in the house of the oil-press and put them into the small press. 7. Men must not boil greens of the Sabbatical year in oil of the heave-offering, lest they take it for uses that are forbidden. R. Simon "allowed it." And the very last thing (in a series of exchanges) partakes of the laws of the Sabbatical year; but the fruit itself (first exchanged) is forbidden. 8. Men must not buy servants, ground, or an unclean beast, with money of the Sabbatical year; but if they buy them, they must eat 3 as much as their value. They must not bring for an offering the two pigeons of one with an issue, or the two pigeons after childbirth bought with money of the Sabbatical year. And if they bring them, they must eat' as much as their value. They must not anoint vessels with oil of the Sabbatical year. But if they anoint them, they must eat I as much as their value. 9. "A skin which one anointed with oil of the Sabbatical year?" Rabbi Eleazar said, "it must be burned." But the Sages say, "one must eat 1 as much as its value." The Sages said before Rabbi Akiba it was a saying of Rabbi Eleazar, "a skin smeared with oil of the Sabbatical year must be burned." He said to them, "Hush! I cannot tell you what Rabbi Eleazar said about it." 10. And again, the Sages said in his presence, it was a saying of Rabbi Eleazar, 2 "he who eats the bread of Samaritans is as one who eats swine-flesh." He said to them, "Hush! I cannot tell you what Rabbi Eleazar said about it." 11. "A bath which was heated with stubble or straw of the Sabbatical year?" "It is allowed to wash in it." "But if one confer honour (on the bath)?" "He should not wash in it." 77:1 Aisar, a coin worth 3 1/10th farthings. 77:2 Pundion, a coin worth 1½d. 77:3 Of the fruits of the Sabbatical year. 78:1 Of the fruits of the Sabbatical year. 78:2 There are various Rabbis of this name, spelt in different ways, mentioned in the Talmud.

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1 Ahmed M = "In Greek mythology, Pandion II was King of Athens, the son and heir of Cecrops II. "
2 Ahmed M = "Pandion II was the eighth king of Athens in the traditional line of succession."
3 Ahmed M = "Pandion was exiled from Athens by the sons of his uncle Metion who sought to put Metion on the throne."