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Treatise III. On The Sabbath Chapter I, The Talmud

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The Talmud, by Joseph Barclay, [1878] Removals—Work to be avoided—Discussion between the Schools of Shammai and Hillel as to what constitutes Work—Work allowed—Lighting—Eve of the Sabbath—Cooking and Hot Water—Retention of Heat—Burdens—Ornaments—Principal and Secondary Work. 1. Removals 1 on the Sabbath are two. Of these removals four are inside a place. And there are two other removals, of which four are outside a place. "How?" "A beggar stands without, and the master of the house within. The beggar reached his hand within, and gave something into the hand of the master of the house, or took something from it and brought it out?" "The beggar is guilty, 2 and the master of the house is free." "The master of the house reached his hand outside and gave something into the hand of the beggar, or took something from it and brought it in?" "The master of the house is guilty, but the beggar is free." "The beggar reached his hand within, and the master of the house took something from it, or gave something into it, and the beggar brought it out?" "Both are free." "The master of the house reached his hand without, and the beggar took something from it, or gave something into it, and the master brought it in?" "Both are free." 2. A man must not sit before the barber near to evening prayer, 3 until he has prayed. He must not enter a bath, nor a tannery, nor eat, nor judge. "But if they began?" "They need not cease." They may cease to read the "Hear," 4 etc., but they must not cease to pray. 3. A tailor must not go out with his needle near dusk, 3 lest he forget and go (afterwards). Nor a scribe go out with his pen. Nor may one search his garments. Nor shall one read at the light of the lamp. In truth they said, "the teacher may overlook when children are reading, but he himself shall not read." Similar to him, one with an issue shall not eat with her who has an issue, because of the custom of transgression. 4. And these following are from the decisions which they mentioned of the upper chamber of Hananiah, the son of Hezekiah, the son of Gorion, when the Sages went up to visit him. The school of Shammai was counted, and was more numerous than the school of Hillel. And eighteen matters were determined on that day. 5. The school of Shammai said, "they must not soak ink, nor paints, nor vetches, unless they be sufficiently soaked while it is yet day." But the school of Hillel allow it. 6. The school of Shammai said, "they must not put bundles of flax inside the oven, except it be sufficiently steamed while it is yet day, nor wool into the boiler except it imbibe sufficient dye in the eye of day." But the school of Hillel allow it. The school of Shammai said, "they must not spread nets for beasts, nor birds, nor fishes, except they be netted while it is yet day." But the school of Hillel allow it. 7. The school of Shammai said, "they must not sell to a stranger, and they must not lade his ass with him, and they must not load on him, except they have sufficient time to reach a near place before the Sabbath." But the school of Hillel allow it. 8. The school of Shammai said, "they must not give skins to a tanner, nor articles to a strange laundress; except they can be sufficiently done while it is yet day." But all of them the school of Hillel allow "with the sun." 9. Said Rabbi Simon, the son of Gamaliel, "the house of my father used to give white articles to a strange laundress three days before the Sabbath." But both schools agree that "they may carry 1 beams to the oil-press and logs to the wine-press." 10. "They must not fry flesh, onions, and eggs; except they be sufficiently fried while it is yet day. They must not put bread in the oven at dusk, nor a cake on coals, except its face be sufficiently crusted while it is yet day." Rabbi Eliezer said, "that its under side be sufficiently crusted." 11. "They may hang up the passover 1 offering in an oven at dusk." And they may take a light from the wood pile in the house of burning. 2 And in the suburbs "when the fire has sufficiently lighted the greater part." Rabbi Judah says, "from the coals however little" (kindled before the Sabbath). 83:1 From private to public property. 83:2 Of death. 83:3 On Friday evening 83:4 Deut. vi. 4. 84:1 Though by their weight they continue to press out oil or wine on the Sabbath.

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1 Ahmed M = "Shammai recommended a friendly attitude towards all."
2 Ahmed M = "After Hillel died, Shammai took his place as president."
3 Ahmed M = "Shammai took an active part in the political and religious complications of his native land. "