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Treatise III. On The Sabbath Chapter VII, The Talmud

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The Talmud, by Joseph Barclay, [1878] 1. The Sages laid down a great rule for the Sabbath: "Every one who forgets the principle of Sabbath, and did many works on many Sabbaths, is only responsible for one sin-offering. Every one who knows the principle of Sabbath, and did many works on many Sabbaths, is responsible for every Sabbath. Every one who knows that there is Sabbath, and did many works on many Sabbaths, is responsible for every principal work. 1 Every one who has done many works, springing from one principal work, is only responsible for one sin-offering." 2. The principal works are forty, less one—sowing, ploughing, reaping, binding sheaves, threshing, winnowing, sifting, grinding, riddling, kneading, baking, shearing wool, whitening, carding, dyeing, spinning, warping, making two spools, weaving two threads, taking out two threads, twisting, loosing, sewing two stitches, tearing thread for two sewings, hunting the gazelle, slaughtering, skinning, salting, curing its skin, tanning, cutting up, writing two letters, erasing to write two letters, building, demolishing, quenching, kindling, hammering, carrying from private to public property. Lo, these are principal works—forty, less one. 3. And another rule the Sages laid down: "All that is worthy of reservation, and they reserve its like—if they carry it out on the Sabbath, they are responsible for a sin-offering; and everything which is not worthy of reservation, and they do not reserve its like—if they carry it out on the Sabbath, none is responsible but the reserver." 4. Whoever brings out straw—a heifer's mouthful; hay—a camel's mouthful; chaff—a lamb's mouthful; herbs—a kid's mouthful; garlic leaves and onion leaves—if fresh, the size of a dried fig if dry, a kid's mouthful; but they must not add one with the other, for they are not equal in their measures. Whoever carries out food the size of a dried fig, is guilty of death. And victuals, they may add one to another as they are equal in their measures, excepting their peels and their kernels, and their stalks and the fine and coarse bran. Rabbi Judah says, "excepting the peels of lentils, as they may cook them with them." 92:1 Works are divided into principal and secondary, or in Rabbinic language fathers and children. And if a man does one principal work and twenty secondary works, they regarded them as one sin, and consequently deserving one punishment.

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1 Ahmed M = "The harshness of the death penalty indicated the seriousness of the crime. Jewish philosophers argue that the whole point of corporal punishment was to serve as a reminder to the community of the severe nature of certain acts."
2 Ahmed M = "The numerous references to a death penalty in the Torah underscore the severity of the sin rather than the expectation of death."
3 Ahmed M = "According to the Talmud, forty years before the destruction of Temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE, the Sanhedrin effectively abolished capital punishment."