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Treatise Iv. On The Passover Chapter Ix, The Talmud

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The Talmud, by Joseph Barclay, [1878] 1. He who was legally unclean, or in a journey afar off, and did not keep the first, must keep the second (passover). "He mistook it, or was constrained by force, and did not keep the first?" "He must keep the second." "If so, why is it said unclean 1 or in a journey afar off?" "Because such persons are free from being cut off, but those bound to observe it are to be cut off if they neglect it." 2. What is a "journey afar off?" "From Modiim 2 and outwards; and so is the measure from Jerusalem on every side." The words of Rabbi Akiba; Rabbi Eleazar said, "from the threshold of the temple-court and outwards." Said R. José, "for this reason there is a dot on the 'he' (‏הׁ‎), 3 to explain not that it is really afar off, but that one is afar off from the threshold of the temple court and outwards." 3. "What is the difference between the first and second passover?" "The first passover forbids leaven to be seen or found; but the second allows unleavened and leavened bread in one's house." The first passover requires hallel 4 during eating, but the second does not require hallel during eating. Both require hallel in their preparations, and the paschal sacrifices must be eaten roasted on unleavened bread with bitter herbs, and they both abrogate the Sabbath. 4. "The passover-offering which was brought during legal uncleanness?" "The man or woman with an issue may not eat of it, nor she in separation or in childbirth. But if they eat they are free from being cut off." Rabbi Eleazar "frees them even in going into the sanctuary." 5. "What is the difference between the passover of Egypt and the passover of succeeding generations?" "The passover of Egypt was taken on the tenth day, 1 and required the sprinkling with a bunch of hyssop on the lintel and the two side posts, and was eaten with haste in one night; but the passover of succeeding generations exists the whole seven days." 6. Said R. Joshua, "I once heard that the substitute 2 of the passover-offering can be sacrificed, and that the substitute of the passover-offering can not be sacrificed, I have no one to explain." Said R. Akiba, "I will explain: the passover-offering, which was found (after being lost) before the time for slaughtering its substitute, may be pastured till it be blemished, and it can be sold, and the owner can take for its price peace-offerings, and so also for its substitute. After the time for slaughtering the passover-offering its substitute may be offered for a peace-offering, and so can also its substitute." 7. "He who set apart an ewe for his passover, or a male of two years?" "He may pasture it till it be blemished. And he can sell it, and its price may be used for a free-will offering." "He who selected his passover, and afterwards died?" "His son must not offer it after him with the intention of a passover, but he may offer it with the intention of a peace-offering." 8. "The passover-offering which was mixed up with other sacrifices?" "All must be pastured till they be blemished, and they must be sold, and the offerer must bring the price of the best of this kind and the price of the best of that kind, and the loss he must make up from his private means." "The passover-offering which was mixed up with firstborns?" Rabbi Simon said, "if there be companies of priests they may eat it." 9. "A company 3 which lost its passover-offering, and said to some one, 'go and seek it and slaughter it for us;' and he went and found it and slaughtered it, and they meanwhile also took one and slaughtered it,—if his be first slaughtered?" "He may eat of his and they may eat with him of his." "But if theirs be first slaughtered?" "They may eat of theirs, and he may eat of his." "But if it be not known which of them was first slaughtered, or both were slaughtered at once?" "He must eat of his passover, but they cannot eat with him, and their passover must go forth to the house of burning; and they are freed from keeping a second passover." "He said to them, 'if I be too late, go and slaughter for me;' he went, and meanwhile found (the lost) one and slaughtered it, and they took and also slaughtered one. If theirs be first slaughtered?" "They may eat of theirs, and he may eat with them." "But if his were first slaughtered?" "He shall eat of his, and they shall eat of theirs." "But if it be not known which of them was first slaughtered or both of them were slaughtered at once?" "They shall eat, of theirs, but he must not eat with them, and his lamb must go forth to the house of burning, and he is freed from keeping a second (passover)." "If he said to them 'slaughter for me,' and they also said to him 'slaughter for us?'" "All shall eat of that one first slaughtered." "But if it be not known which of them was first slaughtered?" "Both must go forth to the house of burning." "If he did not say it to them, nor they say it to him?" "They are not sureties one for the other" (and they must eat apart from each other). 10. "Two companies had their passover-offerings mixed: this company drew out one for themselves, and that company drew out one for themselves. One of these comes to those, and one of those comes to these, and thus they say, 'if this passover be ours, let our hands be withdrawn from yours and be counted with ours; but if this passover be yours, let our hands be withdrawn from ours and be counted with yours.' And so with five companies of five each, and ten of ten each, they may draw out and join one from every company, and say so." 11. "Two persons who had their passover-offerings mixed?" "One draws out one for himself, and the other draws out one for himself. This one can count with himself a person invited from the market. And that one can count with himself a person invited from the market. This individual comes to that one, and that one comes to this one, and so they say, 'if this passover be mine, let thy hands be withdrawn from thine, and be counted with mine; and if this passover be thine, let my hands be withdrawn from mine, and be counted with thine.'" 113:1 Numbers ix. 10. 113:2 About 15 miles from Jerusalem. Modiim or Modin was the city of the Maccabees. 113:3 On the ‏הׁ‎ in ‏רחוקהׁ‎, which means "distant." 113:4 Psalms cxiii.-cxviii. 114:1 Exod. xii. 3. 114:2 The substitute refers to one animal changed for another, which had been intended for the passover-offering. 114:3 The following rules are founded on two principles; firstly, that every lamb must have its own numbered company of eaters; and secondly, that no person could be numbered with two companies.

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1 Ahmed M = "The distinction between clean and unclean animals appears first in Gen. vii. 2-3, 8."
2 Ahmed M = "It was hard for the rabbinical authorities to distinguish clean from unclean birds."
3 Ahmed M = "Clean birds have craws, and their stomachs have a double skin which can easily be separated."