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Treatise XI. Idolatry Chapter II, The Talmud

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The Talmud, by Joseph Barclay, [1878] 1. Israelites must not put cattle in the stables of idolaters, because of their evil habits. And a woman must not be alone with them, because of their evil habits. And no man should be alone with them, because they are apt to shed blood. 2. A daughter of Israel must not attend an idolatrous woman, because she helps the birth of a child for idolatry. But an idolatress may attend a daughter of Israel. A daughter of Israel must not suckle a child of an idolatress; but an idolatress may suckle a child of a daughter of Israel, under her observation. 3. "Israelites may take from them medicine to cure property; but not to cure persons. And they are not to be shaved by them anywhere." The words of R. Meier. But the Sages say, "under public observation it is allowed, but not entirely alone." 4. These things of the idolaters are forbidden, and every use of them is strictly forbidden; wine, and vinegar of the heathen which was at first wine, and Hadrian's mixture 1 with its fragments, and hides of animals with their hearts 2 (torn out). Rabbi Simon the son of Gamaliel said "when the rent is round, it is forbidden, when lengthwise it is allowed." "The flesh brought in for idolatry is allowed; but that which is brought out is forbidden, because it is the sacrifice for the dead." The words of R. Akiba. It is forbidden to do business with those who go to worship the Penates; but with those who return from them it is allowed. "The skin bottles of the idolaters and their jugs into which Jewish wine is poured, are forbidden, and every use of them is strictly forbidden." The words of R. Meier. But the Sages say, "every use of them is not forbidden." "Grape stones and grape skins of the idolaters are forbidden, and every use of them is strictly forbidden." The words of R. Mair. But the Sages say, "when moist, they are forbidden; but when dry, they are allowed." "Fish brine and the cheese from Bethuniki, 3 a village of the idolaters, are forbidden and every use of them strictly forbidden." The words of R. Meier. But the Sages say, "every use of them is not forbidden." R. Judah related, that R. Ishmael asked R. Joshua, as they were journeying along the road—he said to him. "why do they forbid the cheese of idolaters?" [paragraph continues] He replied to him, "because they cause it to ferment with the stomach of a carcase." R. Ishmael said to him, “and is not the stomach of a burnt-offering of more importance than the stomach of a carcase, and it was said, “the priest who was so minded supped the milk that was in it,” but the Sages did not agree with him, and they said, "the priests do not use it, and they are not guilty." He changed the conversation, and said to him, "because they ferment it with the stomach of a calf (devoted) to idolatry." He said to him, "if so, why do they not forbid it for every use?" He turned to another subject, and said to him, "brother Ishmael, how do you read, 'For thy love is better than wine,' 1 or 'For thy love is good'"? He replied to him, "For thy love is good." He said to him, "it is not so, since the next verse explains it, 'Because of the savour of thy good ointments.'" 5. These things of the idolaters are forbidden, but every use of them is not strictly forbidden; milk which an heathen milked, and an Israelite did not see it. "Their bread and oil?" "Rabbi and his colleagues allowed oil." But the cookery, and the gravy into which they are wont to put wine and vinegar, and shred thunny fish, and the sauce in which the fish chalbith is not swimming, and the herring, and the essence of assafœtida, and spiced salt, are forbidden; but every use of them is not strictly forbidden. 6. These things are allowed for eating—milk which an idolater milked, and an Israelite saw, and honey and honeycomb, even if they are dropping, as they do not contain the effect of liquor, 2 and gravy into which they are not wont to put wine and vinegar, and shred thunny fish, and sauce in which there is the fish chalbith, and the leaf of the assafœtida, and olives crushed into round cakes. R. José said, "the kernels detached from the olives are forbidden." The locusts which they bring from their baskets 3 are forbidden; but those brought from their magazines are allowed. And even so is the decision for their heave-offerings. 207:1 Hadrian's mixture was balls of clay saturated with wine and taken on military expeditions. When the soldiers wished to drink, they soaked them in water so that it had a taste of wine, and the mud settled at the bottom of the vessel. 207:2 The heart torn out of the animal when alive to be offered in idolatrous worship. 207:3 A village where calves were offered in idolatry. Consequently the rennet was forbidden, and the cheese made from their rennet was also forbidden. 208:1 Sol. Song, i. 2. The question is, whether the friendship sprang from the wine or not, and his conclusion is that as the savour is connected with the oil, so is the friendship with the wine, and so is the cheese connected with idolatry. 208:2 i.e. for legal defilement. 208:3 The locusts might be mixed in the basket with wine or liquor, which would cause legal defilement.

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1 Ahmed M = "All forms of worship that are not purely monotheistic are treated together as idolatry and severely condemned. "
2 Ahmed M = "Jewish thinkers have always been bothered by the existence of suffering and evil, but in modern times, as a result of the Holocaust, it has taken on a central role in the thought of almost all contemporary Jewish theologians."
3 Ahmed M = "For Jews, the problem of suffering is twofold: there is a universal problem and a particular problem. "