The Buddha here explains the insights that led to his awakening and liberation, the Four Noble Truths: 1. The first Noble Truth is that life is that of suffering, or impermanence. Nothing is permanent, because everything is continuously changing form. Therefore, all sentient beings are destined to suffer loss, pain, illness and death. 2. The second Noble Truth is that suffering is caused by “craving,” a desire for and attachment to things which are unreal and impermanent. 3. The third Noble Truth is that suffering can be avoided by relinquishing the craving for, and identification with, impermanent things. 4. The fourth Noble Truth is that the way to end craving and find liberation is through the Noble Eightfold Path (outlined below). The Noble Eightfold Path consists of eight ways in which the student may develop wisdom or skillfulness: 1. Right Understanding, or right view, consists of a thorough knowledge of the principles of Buddhism and the Four Noble Truths. 2. Right Mindedness, or right intention, is a sincere commitment to rid oneself of ignorance and delusion and attain liberation for the sake of all beings. 3. Right Speech is learning to speak kindly and honestly, to use one's words to spread the truth and uplift those who listen. 4. Right Action is learning to be helpful and just, to refrain from stealing, hurting or killing. 5. Right Livelihood is learning to live one's entire life in harmony, and according to the Eightfold Path; to never engage in illicit or harmful activity for money or other reward. 6. Right Effort is being persistent in the practice of the Eightfold Path; to make one's primary work and aim the attainment of liberation. 7. Right Attention, or right mindfulness, is learning to be careful and deliberate in all that one says and does; to not act or speak unconsciously. 8. Right Concentration, or right meditation, is the practice of contemplation that leads to Samadhi or liberation. Together, these make up the Middle Way, between the extremes of renunciation and asceticism on the one hand, and hedonism and sensual indulgence on the other. Through the Eightfold Path, one develops wisdom, morality and ultimately Samadhi, or liberation.