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Yaakov ben Chaim Tzvi does the Hebrew writings not also include an awareness and acknowledgement that throughout their history with God they continually misunderstood, turned away from and deliberately chose not embrace the revelations and interactions that God was actively pursuing with them? From the beginning when Moshe went up the mount to speak with God immediately those God had rescued and revealed Himself to had turned away from this God. We see it throughout the history of God's people requiring judges to rescue and redeem them. God's chosen people rejecting God purposes and gifts by choosing a human king. God's prophets over and over calling out His chosen people to stop turning away and accept what God has said and done and is doing and will do.

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1 Yaakov ben Chaim Tzvi = "Jonathan, Thank you for your sincere and insightful question. You are correct that throughout Jewish history (and still today), the Jewish people have turned away from God’s commandments choosing instead to worship secular and physical “gods”. I will assume, primarily because you posted in this article about “Dual Covenant” that you are trying to make a correlation between the lack of Jewish belief in Jesus as the Messiah to a lack of following God’s commandments. In fact, the Generation of Moses believed in God even though they didn’t walk in His ways; this is because it’s much easier to believe in God, then actually follow God (i.e. faith without works).  Exodus 14:31 - When Israel saw the great power which the Lord had used against the Egyptians, the people feared the Lord, and they believed in the Lord and in His servant Moses. From this scripture we can see that the entire nation of Israel did believe in God and his Servant Moses. So if this is the case, what was/is the constant sin of Israel? I shall now show you that the Hebrew scriptures openly and clearly spell out exactly what the sins of the Jewish people were/are. Leviticus 18:4 You must obey my laws and be careful to follow my decrees. I am the Lord your God. Leviticus 18:5 You shall keep My statutes and My judgments, by which a man may live if he does them; I am the Lord. Leviticus 18:26 You shall therefore keep my statutes and my judgments Leviticus 19:37 Therefore shall you observe all my statutes, and all my judgments Leviticus 20:22 You shall therefore keep all my statutes, and all my judgments Deuteronomy 4:1 Now therefore listen, O Israel, to the statutes and to the judgments Deuteronomy 6:1 Now these are the commandments, the statutes, and the judgments Psalm 105:45 That they might observe his statutes, and keep his commandments. Praise you Lord Psalm 119:4 You have commanded us to keep your laws diligently. Ezekiel 20:19 I am the Lord your God; walk in my statutes, and keep my judgments, and do them; Unfortunately, I am not able to fit all the other verses in the Hebrew scriptures which say the same thing, there are just too many more to list completely, however, it should be noted that not a single time does the scriptures say that the Israelites were punished because they didn’t “Believe in God’s Messiah”. So while it’s true that Israel was/is punished; it’s not because we didn’t worship Jesus, but because we don’t follow the 613 commandments as listed in the Jewish scriptures. As a “Nation of Priests” (Exodus 19:6) we are held to a higher standard than the rest of the world and are expected to follow commandments which no other nation is bound.  It is precisely because we have not always lived up to that standard as a nation (many individuals within Israel have and do) that “we” (collectively) were exiled and punished to show the world what happens when they don’t follow God’s commandments. I would also argue that “belief” in God is secondary according to Judaism which is why God continues to reiterate the concept of “following and doing” the laws. Faith and belief are something which requires very little of someone whereas following and doing are acts that require commitment. You may have faith and believe in someone but that doesn’t mean you would empty out your bank account and give him all your money. God doesn’t want Israel to just believe in him, he wants us to show him (and the rest of the world) that we believe in him by following his laws. I hope I was able to answer your question and if not, please let me know and I’ll try harder to give you the answer you seek. Shalom and God bless. Yaakov "