1Sahil Badruddin = ""Second, you [graduands] are graduating with a professional qualification. The courses that led to your degree have their powerful internal logic; your profession has its assumptions about standards, and increasingly about its rights and privileges. But the world you enter will not be labelled physiology, cardiology and genetics; it is a world of unwell, fearful people. Professional standards and assumptions can provide a form of intolerance, pride and myopia as intractable as the rigidities of traditional societies. As you know far better than I, science alone will not give us much guidance on when to prolong human life and whether to intervene in its creation. "The industrialised world only rather recently has rediscovered that these questions engage not merely professional ethics and standards; they touch the deeply held convictions of a Judeo-Christian tradition, an idea of humanity that has challenged the prophets and philosophers for thousands of years. Nations cannot assign these issues to a priesthood of scientists; they require the resources of the human spirit as well as the mind. The Islamic world is dealing with these questions on two fronts simultaneously; first, in the reintroduction of science and its sceptical world view that it is not part of current tradition; second, Islamic societies are rediscovering the importance of the modern, secular world of their Islamic ethical underpinning. Is it any surprise that there is soul-searching and social upheaval, but also intellectual vitality and tumult, among the people of the Islamic world?" His Highness the Aga Khan's 1987 McMaster University Convocation Ceremony address (Hamilton, Ontario, Canada)"